81,973 research outputs found

    An empirical evaluation of four variants of a universal species-area relationship

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    The Maximum Entropy Theory of Ecology (METE) predicts a universal species-area relationship (SAR) that can be fully characterized using only the total abundance (N) and species richness (S) at a single spatial scale. This theory has shown promise for characterizing scale dependence in the SAR. However, there are currently four different approaches to applying METE to predict the SAR and it is unclear which approach should be used due to a lack of empirical evaluation. Specifically, METE can be applied recursively or a non-recursively and can use either a theoretical or observed species-abundance distribution (SAD). We compared the four different combinations of approaches using empirical data from 16 datasets containing over 1000 species and 300,000 individual trees and herbs. In general, METE accurately downscaled the SAR (R^2> 0.94), but the recursive approach consistently under-predicted richness, and METEs accuracy did not depend strongly on using the observed or predicted SAD. This suggests that best approach to scaling diversity using METE is to use a combination of non-recursive scaling and the theoretical abundance distribution, which allows predictions to be made across a broad range of spatial scales with only knowledge of the species richness and total abundance at a single scale.Comment: main text: 20 pages, 2 tables, 3 figure

    Tunable Localization and Oscillation of Coupled Plasmon Waves in Graded Plasmonic Chains

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    The localization (confinement) of coupled plasmon modes, named as gradons, has been studied in metal nanoparticle chains immersed in a graded dielectric host. We exploited the time evolution of various initial wavepackets formed by the linear combination of the coupled modes. We found an important interplay between the localization of plasmonic gradons and the oscillation in such graded plasmonic chains. Unlike in optical superlattices, gradient cannot always lead to Bloch oscillations, which can only occur for wavepackets consisting of particular types of gradons. Moreover, the wavepackets will undergo different forms of oscillations. The correspondence can be applied to design a variety of optical devices by steering among various oscillations.Comment: Sumitted to Journal of Applied Physic

    Giant enhanced optical nonlinearity of colloidal nanocrystals with a graded-index host

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    The effective linear and third-order nonlinear optical properties of metallic colloidal crystal immersed in a graded-index host fluid are investigated theoretically. The local electric fields are extracted self-consistently based on the layer-to-layer interactions, which are readily given by the Lekner summation method. The resultant optical absorption and nonlinearity enhancement show a series of sharp peaks, which merge in a broadened resonant band. The sharp peaks become a continuous band for increasing packing density and number of layers. We believe that the sharp peaks arise from the in-plane dipolar interactions and the surface plasmon resonance, whereas the continuous band is due to the presence of the gradient in the host refractive index. These results have not been observed in homogeneous and randomly-dispersed colloids, and thus would be of great interest in optical nanomaterial engineering.Comment: Submitted to Applied Physics Letter