266 research outputs found

    Kinetic Modeling and Simulation of Emulsion Grafting Copolymerization of Styrene and Acrylonitrile in the Presence of Polybutadiene Seed Latex Particles

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    A two-phase kinetic model is proposed for the emulsion grafting copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene seed latex particles. The experimental results observed by conducting the polymerizations at 50 °C are compared with those predicted by the proposed kinetic model and confirm that the model is valid for predicting the rate of this emulsion grafting copolymerization. In the model predictions, thermodynamic equilibrium equations proposed in our previous papers are used for calculating the monomer concentrations in poly­(styrene-<i>co</i>-acrylonitrile) domains and continuous polybutadiene matrix in acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene terpolymer particles as emulsion grafting copolymerization proceeds. In addition, it is shown that the model is also applicable to predict grafting efficiency, copolymer composition of free and grafted chains

    Power Estimation Using the Exemplary Dataset for Ordinal Data in the Presence of Nonproportional Odds

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    <div><p>Ordinal categorical data are extremely common in clinical trials where subjective outcomes are being measured. The most common analyses for ordinal categorical data are based on the proportional odds model. However, the assumption of proportional odds is an assumption of the model and not necessarily a property of the data. In many situations, clinical researchers may suspect that an effect on an ordinal scale will not satisfy the proportional odds assumption. In these situations, statisticians need to be able to investigate alternative models and estimate the power for these alternative models. We examine the trend odds model and the saturated model and compare these models to the proportional odds model under a wide class of alternative hypotheses. We also examine the exemplary dataset (ED) approach for power estimation for these models and determine how well this approach approximates the actual power. A recently developed ordinal scale for assessing nausea in the pediatric population illustrates the issues. The ED method was found to be accurate down to small sample sizes and the proportional odds test statistic was generally competitive even in the presence of nonproportional odds.</p></div

    Organocatalytic Direct <i>N</i>‑Acylation of Amides with Aldehydes under Oxidative Conditions

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    The direct oxidative <i>N</i>-acylation reaction of primary amides with aryl/α,β-unsaturated aldehydes was achieved in the presence of azolium salt <b>C3</b> and an inorganic base using 3,3′,5,5′-tetra-<i>tert</i>-butyldiphenoquinone as the oxidant, thus providing an efficient approach for the synthesis of three types of imide compounds including <i>N</i>-sulfonylcarboxamides, <i>N</i>-sulfinylcarboxamides, and dicarboxyimides in good yield

    Crossover-Annulation/Oxygenation Approach to Functionalized Phenanthridines by Palladium–Copper Relay Catalysis

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    A tandem crossover-annulation and oxygenation process of conjugated enediyne-acids and <i>ortho</i>-alkynylanilines was achieved by palladium–copper relay catalysis under an oxygen atmosphere, giving access to the three-component assembly of 9-acylphenanthridine compounds

    Measurement results.

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    In this paper, we develop a DSGE model including heterogeneous households, introduce the financial friction of credit constraint mechanism, and study the impact of house price shocks on the consumption of heterogeneous household. Based on this, the CHFS data in 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 were used to test the marginal propensity to consume for housing wealth appreciation under different credit constraints. Results show that: Firstly, the financial accelerator mechanism plays an important role in the transmission of housing price shocks to household consumption. The looser the degree of credit constraints, the more obvious the rise in housing prices will be to the consumption expenditure of borrowing household. Secondly, the impact of housing wealth appreciation on household consumption under different credit constraints is heterogeneous. Among them, housing wealth appreciation has a significant positive impact on household consumption expenditure with multiple houses, credit cards, non-loan restrictions, while the marginal effect on the consumption expenditure of households with only one house, loan limited, and no credit cards decreases. Thirdly, for every 1% increase in the housing wealth appreciation, household consumption will increase significantly by 0.10–0.14%.</div

    Descriptive statistics.

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    In this paper, we develop a DSGE model including heterogeneous households, introduce the financial friction of credit constraint mechanism, and study the impact of house price shocks on the consumption of heterogeneous household. Based on this, the CHFS data in 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 were used to test the marginal propensity to consume for housing wealth appreciation under different credit constraints. Results show that: Firstly, the financial accelerator mechanism plays an important role in the transmission of housing price shocks to household consumption. The looser the degree of credit constraints, the more obvious the rise in housing prices will be to the consumption expenditure of borrowing household. Secondly, the impact of housing wealth appreciation on household consumption under different credit constraints is heterogeneous. Among them, housing wealth appreciation has a significant positive impact on household consumption expenditure with multiple houses, credit cards, non-loan restrictions, while the marginal effect on the consumption expenditure of households with only one house, loan limited, and no credit cards decreases. Thirdly, for every 1% increase in the housing wealth appreciation, household consumption will increase significantly by 0.10–0.14%.</div

    Evolution trend of marginal effect of housing wealth appreciation on household consumption.

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    Evolution trend of marginal effect of housing wealth appreciation on household consumption.</p

    Values of the calibration parameters.

    No full text
    In this paper, we develop a DSGE model including heterogeneous households, introduce the financial friction of credit constraint mechanism, and study the impact of house price shocks on the consumption of heterogeneous household. Based on this, the CHFS data in 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 were used to test the marginal propensity to consume for housing wealth appreciation under different credit constraints. Results show that: Firstly, the financial accelerator mechanism plays an important role in the transmission of housing price shocks to household consumption. The looser the degree of credit constraints, the more obvious the rise in housing prices will be to the consumption expenditure of borrowing household. Secondly, the impact of housing wealth appreciation on household consumption under different credit constraints is heterogeneous. Among them, housing wealth appreciation has a significant positive impact on household consumption expenditure with multiple houses, credit cards, non-loan restrictions, while the marginal effect on the consumption expenditure of households with only one house, loan limited, and no credit cards decreases. Thirdly, for every 1% increase in the housing wealth appreciation, household consumption will increase significantly by 0.10–0.14%.</div

    Measurement results.

    No full text
    In this paper, we develop a DSGE model including heterogeneous households, introduce the financial friction of credit constraint mechanism, and study the impact of house price shocks on the consumption of heterogeneous household. Based on this, the CHFS data in 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 were used to test the marginal propensity to consume for housing wealth appreciation under different credit constraints. Results show that: Firstly, the financial accelerator mechanism plays an important role in the transmission of housing price shocks to household consumption. The looser the degree of credit constraints, the more obvious the rise in housing prices will be to the consumption expenditure of borrowing household. Secondly, the impact of housing wealth appreciation on household consumption under different credit constraints is heterogeneous. Among them, housing wealth appreciation has a significant positive impact on household consumption expenditure with multiple houses, credit cards, non-loan restrictions, while the marginal effect on the consumption expenditure of households with only one house, loan limited, and no credit cards decreases. Thirdly, for every 1% increase in the housing wealth appreciation, household consumption will increase significantly by 0.10–0.14%.</div

    Robustness test results.

    No full text
    In this paper, we develop a DSGE model including heterogeneous households, introduce the financial friction of credit constraint mechanism, and study the impact of house price shocks on the consumption of heterogeneous household. Based on this, the CHFS data in 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 were used to test the marginal propensity to consume for housing wealth appreciation under different credit constraints. Results show that: Firstly, the financial accelerator mechanism plays an important role in the transmission of housing price shocks to household consumption. The looser the degree of credit constraints, the more obvious the rise in housing prices will be to the consumption expenditure of borrowing household. Secondly, the impact of housing wealth appreciation on household consumption under different credit constraints is heterogeneous. Among them, housing wealth appreciation has a significant positive impact on household consumption expenditure with multiple houses, credit cards, non-loan restrictions, while the marginal effect on the consumption expenditure of households with only one house, loan limited, and no credit cards decreases. Thirdly, for every 1% increase in the housing wealth appreciation, household consumption will increase significantly by 0.10–0.14%.</div
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