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    <p>Cell scratch test and Transwell were used to measure the migration abilities of HSVSMCs. NC = Negative control group, only control siRNA transfected; GAS5(-) = lncRNA-GAS5 knockdown group transfected with silence siRNA. <b>A:</b>Cell scratch test was used to measure the migration abilities of HSVSMCs. The results showed that the HSVSMCs have the best migration abilities in the first 24 hours. Values are mean±SE, N = 4. <b>B:</b> The migration abilities of HSVSMCs measured by Transwell. After transfected by lncRNA-GAS5 siRNA for 48 hours, the HSVSMCs were passage into the Transwell Inserts. Then 4 hours, 7 hours, 10 hours later, the migration HSVSMCs were photographed and counted, respectively. Knockdown of lncRNA-GAS5 expression promotes migration of HSVSMCs. Optical microscope images under 200x magnification. <b>C:</b> The migration abilities of HSVSMCs were reflected indirectly by the new migration cells counting with Transwell. Silencing of lncRNA-GAS5 expression increses migration ability of HSVSMCs. Values are mean±SE, N = 10; *, P<0.05.</p

    A Novel Microbial Source Tracking Microarray for Pathogen Detection and Fecal Source Identification in Environmental Systems

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    Pathogen detection and the identification of fecal contamination sources are challenging in environmental waters. Factors including pathogen diversity and ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria hamper risk assessment and remediation of contamination sources. A custom microarray targeting pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa), microbial source tracking (MST) markers, and antibiotic resistance genes was tested against DNA obtained from whole genome amplification (WGA) of RNA and DNA from sewage and animal (avian, cattle, poultry, and swine) feces. Perfect and mismatch probes established the specificity of the microarray in sewage, and fluorescence decrease of positive probes over a 1:10 dilution series demonstrated semiquantitative measurement. Pathogens, including norovirus, <i>Campylobacter fetus, Helicobacter pylori</i>, <i>Salmonella enterica</i>, and <i>Giardia lamblia</i> were detected in sewage, as well as MST markers and resistance genes to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Sensitivity (percentage true positives) of MST results in sewage and animal waste samples (21–33%) was lower than specificity (83–90%, percentage of true negatives). Next generation DNA sequencing revealed two dominant bacterial families that were common to all sample types: <i>Ruminococcaceae</i> and <i>Lachnospiraceae</i>. Five dominant phyla and 15 dominant families comprised 97% and 74%, respectively, of sequences from all fecal sources. Phyla and families not represented on the microarray are possible candidates for inclusion in subsequent array designs

    DataSheet1_Designed NiMoC@C and NiFeMo2C@C core-shell nanoparticles for oxygen evolution in alkaline media.pdf

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    Electrochemical water splitting is one of the most promising and clean ways to produce hydrogen as a fuel. Herein, we present a facile and versatile strategy for synthesizing non-precious transition binary and ternary metal-based catalysts encapsulated in a graphitic carbon shell. NiMoC@C and NiFeMo2C@C were prepared via a simple sol-gel based method for application in the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER). The conductive carbon layer surrounding the metals was introduced to improve electron transport throughout the catalyst structure. This multifunctional structure showed synergistic effects, possess a larger number of active sites and enhanced electrochemical durability. Structural analysis indicated that the metallic phases were encapsulated in the graphitic shell. Experimental results demonstrated that the optimal core-shell material NiFeMo2C@C exhibited the best catalytic performance for the OER in 0.5 M KOH, reaching a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at low overpotential of 292 mV for the OER, superior to the benchmark IrO2 nanoparticles. The good performances and stability of these OER electrocatalysts, alongside an easily scalable procedure makes these systems ideal for industrial purposes.</p

    The illustration of information propagation on a temporal network.

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    <p>(a), (b), (c) and (d) denote different networks at different time points, respectively. Red (gray) time points on edges denote the elapsed time, and the black (dark) time points denote the forthcoming time.</p

    <b>Notations in the paper.</b>

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    <p><b>Notations in the paper.</b></p

    Regenerated Dye-Sensitized Photocatalytic Oxidation of Arsenite over Nanostructured TiO<sub>2</sub> Films under Visible Light in Normal Aqueous Solutions: An Insight into the Mechanism by Simultaneous (Photo)electrochemical Measurements

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    TiO<sub>2</sub> photocatalysis has been demonstrated as an alternative pretreatment method for arsenic-contaminated water by oxidizing As­(III) to less toxic and less mobile As­(V). However, the lack of visible light absorption of the catalyst limits the utilization of sunlight. In this article, we report that As­(III) could be efficiently oxidized by visible light (λ ≥ 420 nm) over a typical ruthenium dye N719-sensitized nanostructured TiO<sub>2</sub> film in the normal aerated aqueous solutions. The amount of oxidation of As­(III) via the photo-oxidative (by dye cation, S<sup>+</sup>) and photoreductive (by electron-initiated reactive oxygen species, EIROS; O<sub>2</sub><sup>•–</sup> considered to be the dominant species) pathways was quantified by simultaneously measuring the oxidation rate and interfacial charge transfer rate of the film electrodes. The results in the absence of O<sub>2</sub> and under an anodic potential bias where EIROS is absent indicate that As­(III) can be highly efficiently oxidized by S<sup>+</sup> via a two-electron reaction with ∼100% Coulombic efficiency, while the results in the dark and under a cathodic bias where S<sup>+</sup> is absent suggest that EIROS could also efficiently oxidize As­(III) via a one-electron reaction with ∼100% Coulombic efficiency as well. Under open circuit and in the normal aerated aqueous solutions, nearly all of the interfacial transferred charge was utilized for the As­(III) photo-oxidation, and 33 and 67% of As­(V) production resulted from S<sup>+</sup> and EIROS-initiated oxidation, respectively. The mechanism of As­(V) formation under this situation was the direct two-electron oxidation of As­(III) by S<sup>+</sup> and indirect one-electron oxidation of As­(III) by EIROS to generate As­(IV), which further reacts with O<sub>2</sub>, producing As­(V). The dye could be completely regenerated in situ through the oxidation of As­(III) and consequently was photostable

    Three examples of the homogeneously structured temporal trees.

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    <p>(a) Independent trees, (b) and (c) Interdependent trees. For the two homogeneously structured trees in (b), there are three same interactions, i.e (B,C,5), (B,D,5) and (B,E,5), but there are only two such interactions, i.e (B,C,5) and (B,D,5), for the trees in (c). The trees in (b) and (c) are both interdependent according to our definition. The numbers in parenthesis denote active time points of interactions and characters denote the weights of interactions.</p

    The illustration of transformation of a temporal network to a static one.

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    <p>(a) Temporal Network with a single controller located on node <i>A</i>, (b) The Time-Ordered Graph (TOG), (c) The temporal trees of (a) at time points 1, 2, 3 and 4, (d) the BFS spanning trees of TOG. The red (dashed), black (dark) and blue (light) lines stand for the flows of time order, the connection with the single controller and the interactions of individuals, respectively. The numbers with parenthesis in (c) denote time stamps. Weights of interactions (the blue ones) are labeled by characters in (b), (c) and (d), and without loss of generality, we denote the weight of other edges (the red and black ones) as “1”.</p

    <b>Characteristics of the three empirical datasets.</b>

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    <p><b>Characteristics of the three empirical datasets.</b></p

    The temporal network in Fig. 1 with the node pairs and active contacts.

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    <p>The temporal network in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0094998#pone-0094998-g001" target="_blank">Fig. 1</a> with the node pairs and active contacts.</p