49 research outputs found

    Complementary Flavonoid Prenylations by Fungal Indole Prenyltransferases

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    Flavonoids are found mainly in plants and exhibit diverse biological and pharmacological activities, which can often be enhanced by prenylations. In plants, such reactions are catalyzed by membrane-bound prenyltransferases. In this study, the prenylation of nine flavonoids from different classes by a soluble fungal prenyltransferase (AnaPT) involved in the biosynthesis of the prenylated indole alkaloid acetylaszonalenin is demonstrated. The behavior of AnaPT toward flavonoids regarding substrate acceptance and prenylation positions clearly differs from that of the indole prenyltransferase 7-DMATS. The two enzymes are therefore complementary in flavonoid prenylations

    Data_Sheet_1_Vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccines reduced the risk of anxiety and depression in a population majored by health care workers during the recent omicron variant outbreak.doc

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    BackgroundThe mental health status of the population majored by health care workers in China during the omicron variant outbreak remains unknown. Furthermore, the effect of COVID-19-inactivated vaccines on mental health is yet to be investigated.MethodsA cross-sectional, online survey study was conducted from 12–20 April, 2022. The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.ResultsResponses from a total of 1,387 participants were analyzed, 39.7% of which reported symptoms of mental health illness. The incidence of anxiety (30.4% vs. 48.4%, p ConclusionOur findings increase the awareness of the high incidence of mental health illness symptoms during the omicron variant outbreak despite previous experiences with the COVID-19 pandemic, and vaccination is suggested to reduce the risk of anxiety and depression.</p

    Stimulation of DC-cytokine production by recombinant SpaFED-piliated lactococci.

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    <p>Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were treated with normalized cultures of recombinant WT (GRS1189) and SpaF pilin-deleted (GRS1126) SpaFED-piliated lactococci (MOI 50). Stimulated TNF-α (<b>A</b>), IL-12 (<b>B</b>), and IL-10 (<b>C</b>) cytokine production was measured as described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113922#s4" target="_blank">Materials and Methods</a>. GRS71 and GRS1052 cells (MOI 50) and DMEM cell-culture medium were included as controls. Measurements were performed in triplicate using moDCs from four new and different donors each time. SEM is shown as error bars. For all tested cytokines, differences in a pairwise comparison between the GRS1189 and GRS1226 data are judged not significant (<i>P</i>≥0.05).</p

    Binding of recombinant SpaFED-piliated lactococcal cells to ECM proteins.

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    <p><i>In vitro</i> binding specificities between the normalized (OD600 = 0.5) cultures of recombinant WT (GRS1189) and SpaF pilin-deleted (GRS1126) SpaFED-piliated lactococci (along with GRS71 and GRS1052 cells as controls) and the fibronectin (<b>A</b>), collagen I (<b>B</b>), and collagen IV (<b>C</b>) proteins were evaluated using the procedure described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113922#s4" target="_blank">Materials and Methods</a>. Triplicate measurements were made for each of the ECM protein experiments, each of which was performed independently twice. SEM is indicated as error bars. For all ECM proteins tested, differences between the GRS1189 and GRS1226 binding results from pairwise comparisons against the GRS71 data are regarded very significant (<i>P</i>≤0.005).</p

    Stimulation of TLR2-dependent NF-κB activation by recombinant SpaFED-piliated lactococci.

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    <p>The HEK-TLR2 cell line was treated with live (−) or heat-treated (100°C for 10 minutes) (+) normalized cultures of recombinant WT (GRS1189) and SpaF pilin-deleted (GRS1126) SpaFED-piliated lactococci (MOI 100). Levels of TLR2-dependent NF-κB activation were assessed as described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113922#s4" target="_blank">Materials and Methods</a>. Testing of the GRS71 and GRS1052 control strains was as well conducted. DMEM cell-culture medium and a TLR2-agonist lipopeptide (Pam3CSK4; 1 ng/ml) served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Quadruplicate measurements were taken for two independent experiments. SEM is shown as error bars. Pairwise differences between the GRS1189 and GRS1226 data (without heat inactivation) are considered very significant (<i>P</i>≤0.005).</p

    Immunoblot analysis of recombinant SpaFED-piliated lactococcal cells.

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    <p>Immunoblots of lactococcal cells corresponding to the empty vector GRS1052 clone (lane 1) and those to the nisin-induced WT (GRS1189; lane 2) and SpaF pilin-deleted (GRS1126; lane 3) SpaFED-piliated clones were probed separately with polyclonal anti-SpaD (<b>A</b>), anti-SpaE (<b>B</b>), and anti-SpaF (<b>C</b>) sera as described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113922#s4" target="_blank">Materials and Methods</a>. Apparent positioning of monomeric SpaD, SpaE, and SpaF proteins is indicated on the right of each immunoblot by an asterisk. A dense ladder-like smear of high-molecular-weight (HMW) protein bands represents the longest lengths of pili and these are indicated on the top left of the immunoblot. The positions and sizes of the molecular weight markers are shown along the left side of the immunoblot.</p

    Mo-Substituted Keggin Tungstosilicate Microtubes: Preparation and Characterization

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    The synthesis and characterization of microtubes of SiMoW<sub>11</sub> Keggin polyoxometalates containing either an Mo­(V) or Mo­(VI) atom is reported. The introduction of a Mo atom into the Keggin-type tungstosilicate microtubes endows them with new properties. The Mo-substituted microtubes may exert both W and Mo functionalities in electrocatalytic reactions and in the immobilization of noble metal nanoparticles. The degree of reduction of the Mo component in the SiMoW<sub>11</sub> microtubes is controllable simply by tuning the amount of reductant present in the mother liquor. Mo-substituted Keggin tungstosilicate microtubes in their reduced state are more stable than the all-tungsten Keggin tungstosilicate heteropoly blue microtubes

    Effect of cell-to-cell contacts on TLR2-induced NF-κB activation by recombinant SpaFED-piliated lactococci.

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    <p>Using a Transwell membrane-segregated system, HEK-TLR2 cells were treated with non-partitioned (−) and partitioned (+) normalized cultures of recombinant WT (GRS1189) and SpaF pilin-deleted (GRS1126) SpaFED-piliated lactococci (MOI 100). Monitoring of TLR2-dependent NF-κB activation was carried out as outlined in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113922#s4" target="_blank">Materials and Methods</a>. Included as controls were GRS71 and GRS1052 cells (MOI 100), DMEM cell-culture medium, and Pam3CSK4 (1 ng/ml). Triplicate measurements were taken for a single experiment. SEM is indicated as error bars.</p

    Upstream sequence alignment comparison of the <i>spaCBA</i> pilus operon promoter region.

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    <p>Shown is a comparative alignment of an upstream stretch of nucleotide sequence preceding the coding region of the <i>spaC</i> pilus gene in the <i>L. rhamnosus</i> GG, LMS2-1, and E800 strains, and as well, the <i>L. casei</i> BL23 strain. The −10/−35 promoter elements predicted previously for the <i>L. rhamnosus</i> GG fimbrial <i>spaCBA</i> operon <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113922#pone.0113922-Douillard1" target="_blank">[15]</a> are indicated in red. Nucleotides identical to this consensus region in the LMS2-1, E800, and BL23 strains are underlined. The nucleotide so designated as the transcriptional start site (TSS) for the <i>L. rhamnosus</i> GG <i>spaCBA</i> pilus locus <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113922#pone.0113922-Douillard1" target="_blank">[15]</a> is indicated. Two hexanucleotide sequences more resembling the typical canonical −10 and −35 consensus promoter elements (as so specified), including a candidate transcriptional initiation nucleotide, are shown in blue. Nucleotides matching the canonical consensus regions are underlined. Nucleotide sequences for the ribosomal binding site (RBS) and the first five codons of the <i>spaC</i> gene are in uppercase black boldface lettering.</p

    Induction of IL-8 cytokine production in Caco-2 cells by recombinant SpaFED-piliated lactococci.

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    <p>Caco-2 cells were treated with normalized cultures of recombinant WT (GRS1189) and SpaF pilin-deleted (GRS1126) SpaFED-piliated lactococci (MOI 100). GRS71 and GRS1052 cells (MOI 100) were used as controls. Endogenous IL-8 cytokine production levels in spent cell culture supernatants were measured as described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113922#s4" target="_blank">Materials and Methods</a>. Triplicate measurements were taken for the experiments, which were repeated independently four times. SEM is displayed as error bars. Pairwise differences between GRS1189 and GRS1226 data are deemed significant (<i>P</i>≤0.05).</p
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