11,700 research outputs found

    Is f1(1420)f_1(1420) the partner of f1(1285)f_1(1285) in the 3P1^3P_1 qqˉq\bar{q} nonet?

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    Based on a 2×22\times 2 mass matrix, the mixing angle of the axial vector states f1(1420)f_1(1420) and f1(1285)f_1(1285) is determined to be 51.551.5^{\circ}, and the theoretical results about the decay and production of the two states are presented. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the present experimental results, which suggests that f1(1420)f_1(1420) can be assigned as the partner of f1(1285)f_1(1285) in the 3P1^3P_1 qqˉq\bar{q} nonet. We also suggest that the existence of f1(1510)f_1(1510) needs further experimental confirmation.Comment: Latex, 6 pages, to be published in Chin. Phys. let

    Global-mean Vertical Tracer Mixing in Planetary Atmospheres II: Tidally Locked Planets

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    In Zhang &\& Showman (2018, hereafter Paper I), we developed an analytical theory of 1D eddy diffusivity KzzK_{zz} for global-mean vertical tracer transport in a 3D atmosphere. We also presented 2D numerical simulations on fast-rotating planets to validate our theory. On a slowly rotating planet such as Venus or a tidally locked planet (not necessarily a slow-rotator) such as a hot Jupiter, the tracer distribution could exhibit significant longitudinal inhomogeneity and tracer transport is intrinsically 3D. Here we study the global-mean vertical tracer transport on tidally locked planets using 3D tracer-transport simulations. We find that our analytical KzzK_{zz} theory in Paper I is validated on tidally locked planets over a wide parameter space. KzzK_{zz} strongly depends on the large-scale circulation strength, horizontal mixing due to eddies and waves and local tracer sources and sinks due to chemistry and microphysics. As our analytical theory predicted, KzzK_{zz} on tidally locked planets also exhibit three regimes In Regime I where the chemical and microphysical processes are uniformly distributed across the globe, different chemical species should be transported via different eddy diffusivity. In Regime II where the chemical and microphysical processes are non-uniform---for example, photochemistry or cloud formation that exhibits strong day-night contrast---the global-mean vertical tracer mixing does not always behave diffusively. In the third regime where the tracer is long-lived, non-diffusive effects are significant. Using species-dependent eddy diffusivity, we provide a new analytical theory of the dynamical quench points for disequilibrium tracers on tidally locked planets from first principles.Comment: Accepted at ApJ, 16 pages, 12 figures. This is the part II. Part I is "Global-mean Vertical Tracer Mixing in Planetary Atmospheres I: Theory and Fast-rotating Planets

    Effects of Bulk Composition on The Atmospheric Dynamics on Close-in Exoplanets

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    Super Earths and mini Neptunes likely have a wide range of atmospheric compositions, ranging from low-molecular mass atmospheres of H2 to higher molecular atmospheres of water, CO2, N2, or other species. Here, we systematically investigate the effects of atmospheric bulk compositions on temperature and wind distributions for tidally locked sub-Jupiter-sized planets, using an idealized 3D general circulation model (GCM). The bulk composition effects are characterized in the framework of two independent variables: molecular weight and molar heat capacity. The effect of molecular weight dominates. As the molecular weight increases, the atmosphere tends to have a larger day-night temperature contrast, a smaller eastward phase shift in the thermal phase curve and a smaller zonal wind speed. The width of the equatorial super-rotating jet also becomes narrower and the "jet core" region, where the zonal-mean jet speed maximizes, moves to a greater pressure level. The zonal-mean zonal wind is more prone to exhibit a latitudinally alternating pattern in a higher-molecular-weight atmosphere. We also present analytical theories that quantitatively explain the above trends and shed light on the underlying dynamical mechanisms. Those trends might be used to indirectly determine the atmospheric compositions on tidally locked sub-Jupiter-sized planets. The effects of the molar heat capacity are generally small. But if the vertical temperature profile is close to adiabatic, molar heat capacity will play a significant role in controlling the transition from a divergent flow in the upper atmosphere to a jet-dominated flow in the lower atmosphere.Comment: 25 pages, 22 figure

    Retrieving the Size of Deep-subwavelength Objects via Tunable Optical Spin-Orbit Coupling

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    We propose a scheme to retrieve the size parameters of a nano-particle on a glass substrate at a scale much smaller than the wavelength. This is achieved by illuminating the particle using two plane waves to create rich and non-trivial local polarization distributions, and observing the far-field scattering pattern into the substrate. A simple dipole model which exploits tunneling effect of evanescent field into regions beyond the critical angle, as well as directional scattering due to spin-orbit coupling is developed, to relate the particle's shape, size and position to the far-field scattering with remarkable sensitivity. Our method brings about a far-field super-resolution imaging scheme based on the interaction of vectorial light with nanoparticles

    Atmospheric Circulation of Brown Dwarfs: Jets, Vortices, and Time Variability

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    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprising east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared lightcurves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds

    Non-negligible magnetic dipole scattering from metallic nanowire for ultrasensitive deflection sensing

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    It is generally believed that when a single metallic nanowire is sufficiently small, it scatters like a point electric dipole. We show theoretically when a metallic nanowire is placed inside specially designed beams, the non-negligible magnetic dipole contribution along with the electric dipole resonance can lead to unidirectional scattering in the far-field, fulfilling Kerker's condition. Remarkably, this far-field unidirectional scattering encodes information that is highly dependent on the nanowire's deflection at a scale much smaller than the wavelength. The special role of small but non-negligible magnetic response and plasmonic resonance are highlighted for this extreme sensitivity as compared with the dielectric counterpart. Effects such as scattering efficiency and shape of the nanowire's cross section are also discussed.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. Comments are welcom

    Atmospheric Circulation of Brown Dwarfs and Jupiter and Saturn-like Planets: Zonal Jets, Long-term Variability, and QBO-type Oscillations

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    Brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets exhibit significant evidence for active atmospheric circulation, which induces a large-scale patchiness in the cloud structure that evolves significantly over time, as evidenced by infrared light curves and Doppler maps. These observations raise critical questions about the fundamental nature of the circulation, its time variability, and the overall relationship to the circulation on Jupiter and Saturn. Jupiter and Saturn themselves exhibit numerous robust zonal (east-west) jet streams at the cloud level; moreover, both planets exhibit long-term stratospheric oscillations involving perturbations of zonal wind and temperature that propagate downward over time on timescales of ~4 years (Jupiter) and ~15 years (Saturn). These oscillations, dubbed the Quasi Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) for Jupiter and the Semi-Annual Oscillation (SAO) on Saturn, are thought to be analogous to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) on Earth, which is driven by upward propagation of equatorial waves from the troposphere. To investigate these issues, we here present global, three-dimensional, high-resolution numerical simulations of the flow in the stratified atmosphere--overlying the convective interior--of brown dwarfs and Jupiter-like planets. The effect of interior convection is parameterized by inducing small-scale, randomly varying perturbations in the radiative-convective boundary at the base of the model. In the simulations, the convective perturbations generate atmospheric waves and turbulence that interact with the rotation to produce numerous zonal jets. Moreover, the equatorial stratosphere exhibits stacked eastward and westward jets that migrate downward over time, exactly as occurs in the terrestrial QBO, Jovian QQO, and Saturnian SAO. This is the first demonstration of a QBO-like phenomenon in 3D numerical simulations of a giant planet.Comment: 27 pages, 15 figures, in press at ApJ; this is the revised (accepted) version, which includes a major new section providing detailed analysis of the types of wave modes present in the model, and characterizing the wave-mean-flow interactions by which they generate the QBO-like oscillation

    Astrophysical constraints on the proton-to-electron mass ratio with FAST

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    That the laws of physics are the same at all times and places throughout the Universe is one of the basic assumptions of physics. Astronomical observations provide the only means to test this basic assumption on cosmological time and distance scales. The possibility of variations in the dimensionless physical constant {\mu} - the proton-to-electron mass ratio, can be tested by comparing astronomical measurements of the rest frequency of certain spectral lines at radio wavelengths with laboratory determinations. Different types of molecular transitions have different dependencies on {\mu} and so observations of two or more spectral lines towards the same astronomical source can be used to test whether there is any evidence for either temporal or spatial changes in the physical fundamental constants. {\mu} will change if the relative strength of the strong nuclear force compared to the electromagnetic force varies. Theoretical studies have shown that the rotational transitions of some molecules which have transitions in the frequency range that will be covered by FAST (e.g., CH3OH, OH and CH) are sensitive to changes in {\mu}. A number of studies looking for possible variations in {\mu} have been undertaken with existing telescopes, however, the greater sensitivity of FAST means it will open new opportunities to significantly improve upon measurements made to date. In this paper, we discuss which molecular transitions and sources (both in the Galaxy and external galaxies) are likely targets for providing improved constraints on {\mu} with FAST
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