18,829 research outputs found

    Gapless Fermions and Quantum Order

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    Using 2D quantum spin-1/2 model as a concrete example, we studied the relation between gapless fermionic excitations (spinons) and quantum orders in some spin liquid states. Using winding number, we find the projective symmetry group that characterizes the quantum order directly determines the pattern of Fermi points in the Brillouin zone. Thus quantum orders provide an origin for gapless fermionic excitations.Comment: 23 pages. LaTeX. Homepage http://dao.mit.edu/~we

    A mean field approach for string condensed states

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    We describe a mean field technique for quantum string (or dimer) models. Unlike traditional mean field approaches, the method is general enough to include string condensed phases in addition to the usual symmetry breaking phases. Thus, it can be used to study phases and phases transitions beyond Landau's symmetry breaking paradigm. We demonstrate the technique with a simple example: the spin-1 XXZ model on the Kagome lattice. The mean field calculation predicts a number of phases and phase transitions, including a z=2 deconfined quantum critical point.Comment: 10 pages + appendix, 15 figure

    Continuous topological phase transitions between clean quantum Hall states

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    Continuous transitions between states with the {\em same} symmetry but different topological orders are studied. Clean quantum Hall (QH) liquids with neutral quasiparticles are shown to have such transitions. For clean bilayer (nnm) states, a continous transition to other QH states (including non-Abelian states) can be driven by increasing interlayer repulsion/tunneling. The effective theories describing the critical points at some transitions are derived.Comment: 4 pages, RevTeX, 2 eps figure

    Quantum ether: photons and electrons from a rotor model

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    We give an example of a purely bosonic model -- a rotor model on the 3D cubic lattice -- whose low energy excitations behave like massless U(1) gauge bosons and massless Dirac fermions. This model can be viewed as a ``quantum ether'': a medium that gives rise to both photons and electrons. It illustrates a general mechanism for the emergence of gauge bosons and fermions known as ``string-net condensation.'' Other, more complex, string-net condensed models can have excitations that behave like gluons, quarks and other particles in the standard model. This suggests that photons, electrons and other elementary particles may have a unified origin: string-net condensation in our vacuum.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures, RevTeX4. Home page http://dao.mit.edu/~we

    Three-dimensional topological phase on the diamond lattice

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    An interacting bosonic model of Kitaev type is proposed on the three-dimensional diamond lattice. Similarly to the two-dimensional Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice which exhibits both Abelian and non-Abelian phases, the model has two (``weak'' and ``strong'' pairing) phases. In the weak pairing phase, the auxiliary Majorana hopping problem is in a topological superconducting phase characterized by a non-zero winding number introduced in A. P. Schnyder, S. Ryu, A. Furusaki, and A. W. W. Ludwig, arXiv:0803.2786. The topological character of the weak pairing phase is protected by a discrete symmetry.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

    Projective non-Abelian Statistics of Dislocation Defects in a Z_N Rotor Model

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    Non-Abelian statistics is a phenomenon of topologically protected non-Abelian Berry phases as we exchange quasiparticle excitations. In this paper, we construct a Z_N rotor model that realizes a self-dual Z_N Abelian gauge theory. We find that lattice dislocation defects in the model produce topologically protected degeneracy. Even though dislocations are not quasiparticle excitations, they resemble non-Abelian anyons with quantum dimension sqrt(N). Exchanging dislocations can produces topologically protected projective non-Abelian Berry phases. The dislocations, as projective non-Abelian anyons can be viewed as a generalization of the Majorana zero modes.Comment: 4 pages + refs, 4 figures. RevTeX

    Fractional topological superconductors with fractionalized Majorana fermions

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    In this paper, we introduce a two-dimensional fractional topological superconductor (FTSC) as a strongly correlated topological state which can be achieved by inducing superconductivity into an Abelian fractional quantum Hall state, through the proximity effect. When the proximity coupling is weak, the FTSC has the same topological order as its parent state and is thus Abelian. However, upon increasing the proximity coupling, the bulk gap of such an Abelian FTSC closes and reopens resulting in a new topological order: a non-Abelian FTSC. Using several arguments we will conjecture that the conformal field theory (CFT) that describes the edge state of the non-Abelian FTSC is U(1)/Z2U(1)/Z_2 orbifold theory and use this to write down the ground-state wave function. Further, we predict FTSC based on the Laughlin state at őĹ=1/m\nu=1/m filling to host fractionalized Majorana zero modes bound to superconducting vortices. These zero modes are non-Abelian quasiparticles which is evident in their quantum dimension of dm=2md_m=\sqrt{2m}. Using the multi-quasi-particle wave function based on the edge CFT, we derive the projective braid matrix for the zero modes. Finally, the connection between the non-Abelian FTSCs and the Z2mZ_{2m} rotor model with a similar topological order is illustrated.Comment: 15 pages, 2 figure
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