6,741 research outputs found

    Testing Cosmological Models with Type Ic Super Luminous Supernovae

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    The use of type Ic Super Luminous Supernovae (SLSN Ic) to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 11 SLSNe Ic, which have thus far been used solely in tests involving Λ\LambdaCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between the Rh=ctR_{\rm h}=ct and Λ\LambdaCDM cosmologies. We individually optimize the parameters in each cosmological model by minimizing the χ2\chi^{2} statistic. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on these current SLSN Ic measurements to estimate how large the sample would have to be in order to rule out either model at a 99.7%\sim 99.7\% confidence level. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of \sim7080%70-80\% that the Rh=ctR_{\rm h}=ct Universe is the correct cosmology versus \sim2030%20-30\% for the standard model. These results are suggestive, though not yet compelling, given the current limited number of SLSNe Ic. We find that if the real cosmology is Λ\LambdaCDM, a sample of \sim240240 SLSNe Ic would be sufficient to rule out Rh=ctR_{\rm h}=ct at this level of confidence, while \sim480480 SLSNe Ic would be required to rule out Λ\LambdaCDM if the real Universe is instead Rh=ctR_{\rm h}=ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with Λ\LambdaCDM. If such SLSNe Ic are commonly detected in the future, they could be a powerful tool for constraining the dark-energy equation of state in Λ\LambdaCDM, and differentiating between this model and the Rh=ctR_{\rm h}=ct Universe.Comment: 33 pages, 9 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in AJ. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1405.2388, arXiv:1410.0875; text overlap with arXiv:1409.4429 by other author

    A Comparison of Cosmological Models Using Strong Gravitational Lensing Galaxies

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    Strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems allow us to compare competing cosmologies as long as one can be reasonably sure of the mass distribution within the intervening lens. In this paper, we assemble a catalog of 69 such systems, and carry out a one-on-one comparison between the standard model, LCDM, and the R_h=ct Universe. We find that both models account for the lens observations quite well, though the precision of these measurements does not appear to be good enough to favor one model over the other. Part of the reason is the so-called bulge-halo conspiracy that, on average, results in a baryonic velocity dispersion within a fraction of the optical effective radius virtually identical to that expected for the whole luminous-dark matter distribution. Given the limitations of doing precision cosmological testing using the current sample, we also carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on the current lens measurements to estimate how large the source catalog would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ~99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is LCDM, a sample of ~200 strong gravitational lenses would be sufficient to rule out R_h=ct at this level of accuracy, while ~300 strong gravitational lenses would be required to rule out LCDM if the real Universe were instead R_h=ct. The difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with LCDM. We point out that, should the R_h=ct Universe eventually emerge as the correct cosmology, its lack of any free parameters for this kind of work will provide a remarkably powerful probe of the mass structure in lensing galaxies, and a means of better understanding the origin of the bulge-halo conspiracy.Comment: 34 Pages, 6 Figures and 5 Tables. Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1405.238
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