800 research outputs found

    Does public transit improvement affect commuting behavior in Beijing, China? : A spatial multilevel approach

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    Developing countries like China have experienced substantial city transformations over the past decade. City transformations are characterized by transportation innovations that allow individuals to access to speedy commuting modes for work activities and offer potential influences on commuting behavior. This paper examines the potential effects of subway system expansion in Beijing on commuting behavior. Our methodological design controls for spatial effects by employing Bayesian multilevel binary logistic models with spatial random effects. Using cross-sectional individual surveys in Beijing, the results suggest that there is a significant rise in subway commuting trips while non-motorized and bus commuting trips are reduced with the new subway expansion. Model comparison results show evidence about the presence of spatial effects in influencing the role of built environment characteristics to play in the commuting behavior analysis

    Empirical essays on real estate, local public goods and happiness: evidence from Beijing

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    This thesis explores the real estate and happiness consequences of public investment in local public goods improvements by using unique micro-geographical data from Beijing; it focuses on the spatial variations in park amenity values, and on the impact of transport improvements on land prices and homeowners’ happiness. Despite intense public interest, little is known about these effects. This thesis aims to fill these gaps. First, I explore the impact and sources of variations of park proximities as capitalized into the residential land prices. This analysis, using geographically-coded data from Beijing, provides new insights on the ways in which land markets capitalize the values of proximity to parks and suggests that this is highly dependent on the parcel’s location and local contextual characteristics. Next, I examine the real estate consequence of public investment in transport improvements using a rich data set of vacant land parcels in Beijing. I use a multiple intervention difference-in-difference method to document opening and planning effects of new rail stations on prices for different land uses in affected areas versus unaffected areas. Residential and commercial land parcels receiving increased station proximity experience appreciable price premiums, but the relative importance of such benefits varies greatly over space and local demographics. Finally, I investigate the impact of transport improvements on happiness that altered the residence-station distance for some homeowners, but left others unaffected. My estimation strategy takes advantage of micro happiness surveys conducted before-and-after the building of new rail stations in 2008 Beijing. I deal with the potential concern about the endogeneity in sorting effects by focusing on “stayers”and using non-market housings with pre-determined locations. I find the significantly heterogeneity in the effects from better rail access on homeowners’ happiness with respect to different dimensions of residential environment. The welfare analysis results suggest strong social-spatial differentiations. In combination, the three papers of this thesis make important contributions to a growing literature on public infrastructure, land market and happiness

    Logical gaps in the approximate solutions of the social learning game and an exact solution

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    After the social learning models were proposed, finding the solutions of the games becomes a well-defined mathematical question. However, almost all papers on the games and their applications are based on solutions built upon either an add-hoc argument or a twisted Bayesian analysis of the games. Here, we present logical gaps in those solutions and an exact solution of our own. We also introduced a minor extension to the original game such that not only logical difference but also difference in action outcomes among those solutions become visible.Comment: A major revisio

    Airports, market access and local economic performance: Evidence from China

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    In this paper we study the effect of airports on local economic performance that arises from better access to domestic markets, using China’s recent rapid air network expansion. We estimate the effects of the implied changes in access to population on measures of economic performance using a panel of counties built from administrative records and micro data on industrial firms. To mitigate endogeneity concerns we focus on a subsample of ‘incidentally’ affected counties, whose location midway between existing and new airports implies they not were explicitly targeted for development nor directly affected by airport operations. We also decompose market access into land-side and air-side components. Our key finding is that improved population access due to land-side distance reductions to airports increased industrial output and GDP, with an elasticity of around 0.25. An instrumental variables strategy exploiting conversion of historical military airports to civil use yields higher elasticities