89,408 research outputs found

    The time budget and feeding ecology of the pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus, Temminck 1820) a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University

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    The annual and seasonal time budget and feeding ecology of pukeko Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus are described both as a composite day and diurnally. The study shows pukeko do not spend equal time in all activities in all habitats over the day, for each season or over the year. They spend by far the bulk of their time feeding (75-90%), and less time to attentiveness, bodily maintenance, and social encounters. However time allocated to all activities varies with habitat. By far most time is spent in dryland (pasture), and less in turn in rush margins, swamp and water. Bimodal activity patterns (dawn and dusk) are described for each season, whereas feeding effort is unimodal peaking in the mid to late afternoon. Direct sampling of an adjacent population indicates pukeko gradually increase the length of tiller taken and quantity of ingesta consumed over the day. Pukeko do not peck at the same rate or feed at the same intensity in all habitats, at all times of the day, for each season or over the year - feeding fastest and most intensely in rush margin and mud areas, and slower and less intensely in dryland, swamp and water. However considering use of habitats over the year pukeko feed most intensively and extensively in dryland, but less in rush margin, mud, swamp and water. Feeding in the latter three habitats is linked notably with seasonal availability (and/or quality) of forage. Evidence indicates pukeko are able to gauge seasonally the availability (and/or quality) of forage, and allocate their feeding effort appropriately

    The Need for National Training Standards and Guidelines for Privately Paid Geriatric Home Caregivers

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    Contrary to public opinion, America's institution-centered long-term care (LTC) system does not serve the majority of older adults. Currently, nursing homes serve less than 20% of older adults needing care, and thus do not provide a viable solution for future caregiving needs. While these LTC institutions will continue to play an important role in providing care for our most frail older adults who need skilled nursing and/or medical care, they will not be necessary for the vast majority of older adults who simply need nonmedical caregiving, that is, help with activities of daily living. There is, and will continue to be, an urgent need for a large cadre of trained caregivers for older adults who live at home. This issue brief calls for the development of national training standards and a caregiver certifying organization that provides national oversight

    Big hART at John Northcott Estate: Community, Health and the Arts

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    This paper considers the work of Big hART, a social impact of the Arts company, in their residency entitled Northcott Narratives over three and half years at John Northcott Estate, a public housing estate in Sydney. During this time Big hART used arts practice to engage tenants, strengthen their creative dispositions, and build relationships between tenants and a range of different communities. Northcott Narratives used a variety of multi-modal forms with tenants to inquire into, and then express ideas in relation to issues that confront them. These ideas are presented as social policy recommendations. The power and benefits of this form of arts practice along with the tensions and challenges are revealed. The paper adds to the developing discourse in relation to community cultural development

    Some conservative stopping rules for the operational testing of safety-critical software

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    Operational testing, which aims to generate sequences of test cases with the same statistical properties as those that would be experienced in real operational use, can be used to obtain quantitative measures of the reliability of software. In the case of safety critical software it is common to demand that all known faults are removed. This means that if there is a failure during the operational testing, the offending fault must be identified and removed. Thus an operational test for safety critical software takes the form of a specified number of test cases (or a specified period of working) that must be executed failure-free. This paper addresses the problem of specifying the numbers of test cases (or time periods) required for a test, when the previous test has terminated as a result of a failure. It has been proposed that, after the obligatory fix of the offending fault, the software should be treated as if it were completely novel, and be required to pass exactly the same test as originally specified. The reasoning here claims to be conservative, inasmuch as no credit is given for any previous failure-free operation prior to the failure that terminated the test. We show that, in fact, this is not a conservative approach in all cases, and propose instead some new Bayesian stopping rules. We show that the degree of conservatism in stopping rules depends upon the precise way in which the reliability requirement is expressed. We define a particular form of conservatism that seems desirable on intuitive grounds, and show that the stopping rules that exhibit this conservatism are also precisely the ones that seem preferable on other grounds

    The predictive space or if x predicts y, what does y tell us about x?

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    A predictive regression for yt and a time series representation of the predictors, xt, together imply a univariate reduced form for yt. In this paper we work backwards, and ask: if we observe yt, what do its univariate properties tell us about any xt in the "predictive space" consistent with those properties? We provide a mathematical characterisation of the predictive space and certain of its derived properties. We derive both a lower and an upper bound for the R2 for any predictive regression for yt. We also show that for some empirically relevant univariate properties of yt, the entire predictive space can be very tightly constrained. We illustrate using Stock and Watson's (2007) univariate representation of inflation

    International Field Trips - the Tourism and Entertainment Management Field Trip to The Gambia, West Africa

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    Since 2008 students from the Tourism & Entertainment Management Subject Group at Leeds Metropolitan University have been offered the opportunity to spend seven nights in The Gambia, West Africa on an educational field visit. The purpose of the field visit is to investigate how tourism and entertainment can contribute to economic and social development in one of the poorest countries in the world. The field trip is extra-curricular and as such is an optional experience for the students. While the study experience is not assessed, it is hoped that the students will use the learning they gain from their time in The Gambia in the assignments and projects on their course. To date three field trips have been organised and each year the number of students selecting this study abroad opportunity has increased. Thirty-two students (6% of our total student population in Tourism and Entertainment Management) joined the field trip in February 2010, with the majority of students being from our BA (Hons) International Tourism Management degree (primarily at Level 4) and the second largest cohort being from BA (Hons) Entertainment Management (Level 6). The students fund the cost of the field trip themselves

    Getting one step closer to deduction: Introducing an alternative paradigm for transitive inference

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    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published article is available from the link below. Copyright @ 2008 Psychology Press.Transitive inference is claimed to be “deductive”. Yet every group/species ever reported apparently uses it. We asked 58 adults to solve five-term transitive tasks, requiring neither training nor premise learning. A computer-based procedure ensured all premises were continually visible. Response accuracy and RT (non-discriminative nRT) were measured as is typically done. We also measured RT confined to correct responses (cRT). Overall, very few typical transitive phenomena emerged. The symbolic distance effect never extended to premise recall and was not at all evident for nRT; suggesting the use of non-deductive end-anchor strategies. For overall performance, and particularly the critical B?D inference, our findings indicate that deductive transitive inference is far more intellectually challenging than previously thought. Contrasts of our present findings against previous findings suggest at least two distinct transitive inference modes, with most research and most computational models to date targeting an associative mode rather than their desired deductive mode. This conclusion fits well with the growing number of theories embracing a “dual process” conception of reasoning. Finally, our differing findings for nRT versus cRT suggest that researchers should give closer consideration to matching the RT measure they use to the particular conception of transitive inference they pre-held

    The use of multilegged arguments to increase confidence in safety claims for software-based systems: A study based on a BBN analysis of an idealized example

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    The work described here concerns the use of so-called multi-legged arguments to support dependability claims about software-based systems. The informal justification for the use of multi-legged arguments is similar to that used to support the use of multi-version software in pursuit of high reliability or safety. Just as a diverse, 1-out-of-2 system might be expected to be more reliable than each of its two component versions, so a two-legged argument might be expected to give greater confidence in the correctness of a dependability claim (e.g. a safety claim) than would either of the argument legs alone. Our intention here is to treat these argument structures formally, in particular by presenting a formal probabilistic treatment of ‘confidence’, which will be used as a measure of efficacy. This will enable claims for the efficacy of the multi-legged approach to be made quantitatively, answering questions such as ‘How much extra confidence about a system’s safety will I have if I add a verification argument leg to an argument leg based upon statistical testing?’ For this initial study, we concentrate on a simplified and idealized example of a safety system in which interest centres upon a claim about the probability of failure on demand. Our approach is to build a BBN (“Bayesian Belief Network”) model of a two-legged argument, and manipulate this analytically via parameters that define its node probability tables. The aim here is to obtain greater insight than is afforded by the more usual BBN treatment, which involves merely numerical manipulation. We show that the addition of a diverse second argument leg can, indeed, increase confidence in a dependability claim: in a reasonably plausible example the doubt in the claim is reduced to one third of the doubt present in the original single leg. However, we also show that there can be some unexpected and counter-intuitive subtleties here; for example an entirely supportive second leg can sometimes undermine an original argument, resulting overall in less confidence than came from this original argument. Our results are neutral on the issue of whether such difficulties will arise in real life - i.e. when real experts judge real systems

    Stambaugh correlations, monkey econometricians and redundant predictors

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    We consider inference in a widely used predictive model in empirical finance. "Stambaugh Bias" arises when innovations to the predictor variable are correlated with those in the predictive regression. We show that high values of the "Stambaugh Correlation" will arise naturally if the predictor is actually predictively redundant, but emerged from a randomised search by data mining econometricians. For such predictors even bias-corrected conventional tests will be severely distorted. We propose tests that distinguish well between redundant predictors and the true (or "perfect") predictor. An application of our tests does not reject the null that a range of predictors of stock returns are redundant
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