208 research outputs found

    ATOMIC HYDROGEN STORAGE METHOD AND APPARATUS

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    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compound is maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules

    ATOMIC HYDROGEN STORAGE

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    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compound is maintained at liquid temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules

    Optical constants and roughness study of dc magnetron sputtered iridium films

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    Extremely smooth thin films of iridium have been deposited onto superpolished fused silica substrates using dc magnetron sputtering in an argon plasma. The influence of deposition process parameters on film microroughness has been investigated. In addition, film optical constants have been determined using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, over the spectral range from vacuum ultraviolet to middle infrared (140 nm–35 μm). Because the Ir films were optically thick and the surface roughnesses were measured by atomic force microscopy then accounted for in the optical model, the as-determined film optical constants are expected to be the best available for Ir bulk metals, minimally affected by surface overlayers or microstructure

    Optical constants and roughness study of dc magnetron sputtered iridium films

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    Extremely smooth thin films of iridium have been deposited onto superpolished fused silica substrates using dc magnetron sputtering in an argon plasma. The influence of deposition process parameters on film microroughness has been investigated. In addition, film optical constants have been determined using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, over the spectral range from vacuum ultraviolet to middle infrared (140 nm–35 μm). Because the Ir films were optically thick and the surface roughnesses were measured by atomic force microscopy then accounted for in the optical model, the as-determined film optical constants are expected to be the best available for Ir bulk metals, minimally affected by surface overlayers or microstructure

    SYSTEM FOR SEQUENTIALLY PROVIDING ABERATION CORRECTED ELECTROMAGNETIC RADATION TO A SPOT ON A SAMPLE AT MULTIPLE ANGLES OF INCIDENCE

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    A system for sequentially providing electromagnetic radia tion to a spot on a sample at different angles of incidence, and after reflection therefrom into a detector. The system includes a plurality of spherical mirrors, and a refractive element for correcting aberration

    Materials, structures, and devices for high-speed electronics

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    Advances in materials, devices, and instrumentation made under this grant began with ex-situ null ellipsometric measurements of simple dielectric films on bulk substrates. Today highly automated and rapid spectroscopic ellipsometers are used for ex-situ characterization of very complex multilayer epitaxial structures. Even more impressive is the in-situ capability, not only for characterization but also for the actual control of the growth and etching of epitaxial layers. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has expanded from the research lab to become an integral part of the production of materials and structures for state of the art high speed devices. Along the way, it has contributed much to our understanding of the growth characteristics and material properties. The following areas of research are summarized: Si3N4 on GaAs, null ellipsometry; diamondlike carbon films; variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) development; GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures; Ta-Cu diffusion barrier films on GaAs; GaAs-AlGaAs superlattices and multiple quantum wells; superconductivity; in situ elevated temperature measurements of III-V's; optical constants of thermodynamically stable InGaAs; doping dependence of optical constants of GaAs; in situ ellipsometric studies of III-V epitaxial growth; photothermal spectroscopy; microellipsometry; and Si passivation and Si/SiGe strained-layer superlattices

    Self-organization in porous 6H–SiC

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    Pores in porous 6H–SiC were found to propagate first nearly parallel with the basal plane and gradually change direction and align with the c axis. As a consequence, well-defined columnar pores were formed. It was shown that the rate of change of propagation directions was influenced by the etching parameters, such as hydrofluoric acid concentration and current density. Larger currents resulted in formation of larger pores. Pore sizes were found to increase with depth due to a decrease of the acid concentration. In addition, due to chemical etching effects, larger pore sizes were obtained close to the sample surface

    In-situ ellipsometric control of magnetic multilayer deposition (abstract)

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    Correct determination of layer thicknesses on a subnanometer scale is crucial for studies of giant magnetoresistance, magneto-optical (MO) Kerr rotation, magnetic interlayer coupling, and other magnetic properties of metallic multilayers. Some structures such as [Co/Ni] and [Co/Pt] with fewer than 20 repeats are difficult to be analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) due to too little material. In this work, in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (in-situ SE) is used to precisely determine the optical constants undisturbed by oxidation, and the growth rates of different metal films deposited in a sputtering chamber. In-situ SE determines both the constant and continuously changing growth rates during deposition of individual layers. SE data were also taken during multilayer thin-film growth, from which we determine the individual layer thicknesses in the superlattice to a fraction of an angstrom. The in-situ SE data and ellipsometric analysis of [Co/Au] and [Co/Ni] multilayers on thick gold-coated silicon, and [Co/Pt] multilayers with a Pt underlayer are presented. Less than a few percent difference was found by comparing the XRD thickness results to thein-situ SE thickness results. In-situ SE permits studies of oxidation kinetics, important because oxidation strongly influences both the magnetic and MO results. Specifically, spectroscopic MO Kerr rotation, ellipticity, and figure of merit of [Co/Ni] and [Co/Pt] multilayers with different repeat structures, with and without capping layers are reported covering the spectral range from ultraviolet to near infrared

    Self-organization in porous 6H–SiC

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    Pores in porous 6H–SiC were found to propagate first nearly parallel with the basal plane and gradually change direction and align with the c axis. As a consequence, well-defined columnar pores were formed. It was shown that the rate of change of propagation directions was influenced by the etching parameters, such as hydrofluoric acid concentration and current density. Larger currents resulted in formation of larger pores. Pore sizes were found to increase with depth due to a decrease of the acid concentration. In addition, due to chemical etching effects, larger pore sizes were obtained close to the sample surface

    ELECTROMAGNETIC BEAM DIRECTING MEANS-SAMPLE ANALYSIS SYSTEM STAGE, AND METHOD OF USE

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    Disclosed is an electromagnetic beam directing means for use with sample analysis systems, such as relfectometers, ellipsometers and polarimeters and the like, use of which facilitates investigation of sample systems which are not mounted to a sample analysis system sample system supporting stage. The present invention eliminates the requirement os extensice sample analysis system component realignment when alternatingly performing analysis of sample systems mounted upon, and mounted other than upon, a sample analysis system sample system supporting stage
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