340 research outputs found

    What is the current state of practitioner research? The 2013 LIRG Research Scan

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    This paper reports on a scoping review commissioned as a research scan by the CILIP Library and Information Research Group (LIRG) and undertaken by a small research team at the School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) at the University of Sheffield. Firstly the recent literature (2010-2012) on LIS practitioner-focused research was identified and briefly reviewed. This was supplemented by an entities scan; that is, a brief scan of key outputs (e.g. newsletters, discussion lists, etcetera) produced by CILIP specialist interest groups (SIGS). The team identified a total of 142 relevant papers. These were coded and characterised against relevant frameworks. A brief selection of items in each category was reviewed. The paper concludes by suggesting priorities to improve practitioner research at practitioner, organisational and strategic level. Particular attention was focused on the stimulation of collaborative “hive” research activities and on monitoring existing good practice from other groups, associations and countries

    Incentivising research data sharing : a scoping review

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    Background: Numerous mechanisms exist to incentivise researchers to share their data. This scoping review aims to identify and summarise evidence of the efficacy of different interventions to promote open data practices and provide an overview of current research. Methods: This scoping review is based on data identified from Web of Science and LISTA, limited from 2016 to 2021. A total of 1128 papers were screened, with 38 items being included. Items were selected if they focused on designing or evaluating an intervention or presenting an initiative to incentivise sharing. Items comprised a mixture of research papers, opinion pieces and descriptive articles. Results: Seven major themes in the literature were identified: publisher/journal data sharing policies, metrics, software solutions, research data sharing agreements in general, open science ‘badges’, funder mandates, and initiatives. Conclusions: A number of key messages for data sharing include: the need to build on existing cultures and practices, meeting people where they are and tailoring interventions to support them; the importance of publicising and explaining the policy/service widely; the need to have disciplinary data champions to model good practice and drive cultural change; the requirement to resource interventions properly; and the imperative to provide robust technical infrastructure and protocols, such as labelling of data sets, use of DOIs, data standards and use of data repositories

    The association between long-term conditions and uptake of population-based screening for colorectal cancer: results from two English cohort studies

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    Introduction: Uptake of screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) can reduce mortality, and population-based screening is offered in England. To date, there is little evidence on the association between having a long-term condition (LTC) and CRC screening uptake. The objective of this study was to examine the association between having an LTC and uptake of CRC screening in England with the guaiac fecal occult blood test, with a particular focus on common mental disorders. Methods: The study was a preregistered secondary analysis of two cohorts: first, a linked data set between the regional Yorkshire Health Study (YHS) and the National Health Service National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (BCSP, years 2006–2014); second, the national English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA, years 2014–2015). Individuals eligible for BCSP screening who participated in either the YHS (7,142) or ELSA Wave 7 (4,099) were included. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02503969. Results: In both the cohorts, diabetes was associated with lower uptake (YHS odds ratio [OR] for non-uptake 1.35, 95% CI 1.03–1.78; ELSA 1.33, 1.03–1.72) and osteoarthritis was associated with increased uptake (YHS 0.75, 0.57–0.99; ELSA 0.76, 0.62–0.93). After controlling for broader determinants of health, there was no evidence of significantly different uptake for individuals with common mental disorders. Conclusion: Two large independent cohorts provided evidence that uptake of CRC screening is lower among individuals with diabetes and higher among individuals with osteoarthritis. Further work should compare barriers and facilitators to screening among individuals with either of these conditions. This study also demonstrates the benefits of data linkage for improving clinical decision-making

    Implementing health promotion programmes in schools: a realist systematic review of research and experience in the United Kingdom

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    Background: Schools have long been viewed as a good setting in which to encourage healthy lifestyles amongst children, and schools in many countries aspire to more comprehensive, integrated approaches to health promotion. Recent reviews have identified evidence of the effects of school health promotion on children’s and young people’s health. However, understanding of how such programmes can be implemented in schools is more limited. Methods: We conducted a realist review to identify the conditions and actions which lead to the successful implementation of health promotion programmes in schools. We used the international literature to develop programme theories which were then tested using evaluations of school health promotion programmes conducted in the United Kingdom (UK). Iterative searching and screening was conducted to identify sources and clear criteria applied for appraisal of included sources. A review advisory group comprising educational and public health practitioners, commissioners, and academics was established at the outset. Results: In consultation with the review advisory group, we developed four programme theories (preparing for implementation, initial implementation, embedding into routine practice, adaptation and evolution); these were then refined using the UK evaluations in the review. This enabled us to identify transferable mechanisms and enabling and constraining contexts and investigate how the operation of mechanisms differed in different contexts. We also identified steps that should be taken at a senior level in relation to preparing for implementation (which revolved around negotiation about programme delivery) and initial implementation (which centred on facilitation, support, and reciprocity—the latter for both programme deliverers and pupils). However, the depth and rigour of evidence concerning embedding into routine practice and adaptation and evolution was limited. Conclusions: Our findings provide guidance for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health promotion in schools and identify the areas where further research is needed

    How to improve scientific peer review: four schools of thought

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    Peer review plays an essential role as one of the cornerstones of the scholarly publishing system. There are many initiatives that aim to improve the way in which peer review is organized, resulting in a highly complex landscape of innovation in peer review. Different initiatives are based on different views on the most urgent challenges faced by the peer review system, leading to a diversity of perspectives on how the system can be improved. To provide a more systematic understanding of the landscape of innovation in peer review, we suggest that the landscape is shaped by four schools of thought: The Quality & Reproducibility school, the Democracy & Transparency school, the Equity & Inclusion school, and the Efficiency & Incentives school. Each school has a different view on the key problems of the peer review system and the innovations necessary to address these problems. The schools partly complement each other, but we argue that there are also important tensions between them. We hope that the four schools of thought offer a useful framework to facilitate conversations about the future development of the peer review system

    A review of quality of life themes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy for patients and carers

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    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, life-limiting and incurable condition. However, studies estimating quality of life and those measuring actual quality of life in people living with DMD vary considerably. This discrepancy indicates potential difficulties with assessing quality of life using common generic quality of life instruments in this rare and unique population. This study sought to document the range of themes relevant to quality of life for people with DMD by examining the published literature and additionally to investigate the themes that are relevant to quality of life for carers and the wider family. Eligible studies for the review were primary studies of any study design that reported outcomes or themes relevant to quality of life for either people with DMD, their families, or both. A review of studies identified from searching medical bibliographic sources between 2010 and 2016 found 45 relevant published studies. A thematic framework is proposed to categorise the themes identified into: i. physical; ii. psychological; iii. Social; iv. well-being domains. A final “ other” domain was included to encompass themes identified from the literature that are not covered by commonly used quality of life instruments. The rich variety of themes identified from the review highlights that DMD has a complex quality of life profile which is not currently captured by standard quality of life tools that are commonly employed in the healthcare setting. The findings also highlight that the resulting impact on the quality of life of carers and wider family of people with DMD requires consideration

    Should screening for risk of gambling-related harm be undertaken in health, care and support settings? A systematic review of the international evidence

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    Background Gambling-related harm is an increasing recognised problem internationally. Recent years have seen an explosion in opportunities to gamble, both in person and online. Health and other care settings have the potential to act as screening sites to identify and support gamblers who may be at high risk of experiencing gambling-related harm. This study aimed to identify interventions to screen for risk of gambling-related harm in the general population which may be delivered in health, care and support settings. Methods Systematic review. Searches of key databases and grey sources since 2012 were undertaken in October 2019. Electronic database searches generated a total of 5826 unique hits. Nine studies published 2013–2019, along with thirteen grey literature documents met our eligibility criteria. The criteria were setting (health, care and support settings), participants (any attendee in help, care and support settings), interventions (screening to identify risk of harm from gambling behaviours) and outcome measures (gambling behaviours, service use). Results Three papers evaluating screening interventions delivered in general practice (repeat visits and written advice), mental health service (the use of screening tools to identify risk of harm), and substance abuse treatment (intensive outpatient treatment for substance use disorders or methadone maintenance) indicated evidence of potential effectiveness. Six papers supported the feasibility and acceptability of delivering interventions in various settings. Grey literature reports described the implementation of interventions such as training materials, and transfer of interventions developed for substance abuse populations by practitioners. Conclusions Health, care and support services offer potentially important contexts in which to identify and offer support to people who are at risk of gambling related harm. Screening interventions appear feasible and acceptable in a range of community and healthcare settings for those at risk of gambling harm. Evaluation of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening in these populations should therefore be prioritised

    Procedure Volume and the Association with Short-term Mortality Following Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in European Populations: A Systematic Review

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    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the volume of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) procedures undertaken and the primary outcome of mortality in Europe. Previous systematic reviews of this relationship are outdated and are overwhelmingly based on US data. Data sources: Comprehensive searching within MEDLINE and other bibliographic databases supplemented by citation searching and hand-searching of journals was undertaken to identify studies that reported the effect of hospital or clinician volume on any reported outcomes in adult, European populations, undergoing AAA repair and published in the last 10 years. Methods: Two reviewers conducted study selection with independent, duplicate data extraction and quality assessment. A planned meta-analysis was not conducted because of the high risk of bias, the likelihood of individual study subjects being included in more than one study and diversity in the clinical populations studied and methods used. Results: Sixteen studies (n = 237,074 participants) from the UK (n = 11 studies), Germany (n = 3 studies), Norway (n = 1 study), and one from the UK and Sweden were included. Data in the included studies came from administrative databases and clinical registries incorporating a variety of clinical and procedural groups; the study quality was limited by the use of observational study designs. Overall, the evidence favoured the existence of an inverse volume outcome relationship between hospital volume and mortality. Insufficient evidence was available to reach conclusions on the relationship between clinician volume and outcome and between hospital or clinician volume and secondary outcomes including complications and length of hospital stay. Conclusions: The evidence from this review suggests a relationship between the hospital volume of AAA procedures conducted and short-term mortality; however, as volume typically represents a complex amalgamation of factors further research will be useful to identify the core characteristics of volume that influence improved outcomes

    Innovations in peer review in scholarly publishing : a meta-summary [version 1; under peer-review]

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    Background: There are currently numerous innovations in peer review and quality assurance in scholarly publishing. The Research on Research Institute conducted a programme of co-produced projects investigating these innovations. This literature review was part of one such project ‘Experiments in peer review’ which created an inventory and framework of peer review innovations. The aim of this literature review was to aid the development of the inventory by identifying innovations in peer review reported in the scholarly literature and by providing a summary of the different approaches. Methods: This meta-summary is based on data identified from Web of Science and Scopus limited from 2010 to 2021. A total of 247 papers were screened, with 6 review articles chosen for the focus of the literature review. Items were selected that described approaches to innovating peer review or illustrated examples. Results: The summary of innovations are drawn from 6 review articles. The innovations are divided into three high-level categories: approaches to peer review, reviewer focussed initiatives and technology to support peer review with sub-categories of results presented in tabular form and summarised. A summary of all innovations found is also presented. Conclusions: From a simple synthesis of the review authors’ conclusions, three key messages are presented: observations on current practice; authors’ views on the implications of innovations in peer review; and calls for action in peer review research and practice

    An overview of innovations in the external peer review of journal manuscripts.

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    Background: There are currently numerous innovations in peer review and quality assurance in scholarly publishing. The Research on Research Institute conducted a programme of co-produced projects investigating these innovations. This literature review was part of one such project ‘Experiments in peer review’ which created an inventory and framework of peer review innovations. The aim of this literature review was to aid the development of the inventory by identifying innovations in the external peer review of journal manuscripts reported in the scholarly literature and by providing a summary of the different approaches. This did not include interventions in editorial processes. Methods: This review of reviews is based on data identified from Web of Science and Scopus limited from 2010 to 2021. A total of 291 records were screened, with six review articles chosen for the focus of the literature review. Items were selected that described approaches to innovating peer review or illustrated examples. Results: The overview of innovations are drawn from six review articles. The innovations are divided into three high-level categories: approaches to peer review, reviewer focussed initiatives and technology to support peer review with sub-categories of results presented in tabular form and summarised. A summary of all innovations found is also presented. Conclusions: From a simple synthesis of the review authors’ conclusions, three key messages are presented: observations on current practice; authors’ views on the implications of innovations in peer review; and calls for action in peer review research and practice
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