1,253 research outputs found

    Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Pediatric Body-Focused Repetitive Behavior Disorders

    Get PDF
    Habits, such as hair pulling and thumb sucking, have recently been grouped into a category of clinical conditions called body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (BFRBDs). These behaviors are common in children and, at extreme levels, can cause physical and psychological damage. This article reviews the evidence base for psychosocial treatment of pediatric BFRBDs. A review of academic databases and published reviews revealed 60 studies on psychosocial treatments for pediatric BFRBDs, 23 of which were deemed suitable for review. Based on stringent methodological and evidence base criteria, we provided recommendations for each specific BFRBD. Individual behavior therapy proved probably efficacious for thumb sucking, possibly efficacious for several conditions, and experimental for nail biting. Individual and multicomponent cognitive-behavioral therapy was named experimental for trichotillomania and nail biting, respectively. No treatment met criteria for well-established status in the treatment of any BFRBD. Recommendations for clinicians are discussed. Reasons for the limitations of existing research in children and adolescents are explored. Several recommendations are presented for future pediatric treatment research on BFRBDs

    Behavioral Therapy for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders

    Get PDF
    Purpose of review: To summarize behavioral interventions for the treatment of primary tic disorders. Recent findings: Although tics were attributed to a disordered weak volition, the shift towards neurobiological models of tic disorders also transformed nonpharmacologic treatment practices. Current international guidelines recommend habit reversal training, comprehensive behavioral intervention, and exposure and response prevention as first-line therapies for tics. Appropriate patient selection, including age and presence of comorbidities, are salient clinical features that merit consideration. Evidence for further behavioral interventions is also presented. Summary: Currently recommended behavioral interventions view tics as habitual responses that may be further strengthened through negative reinforcement. Although availability and costs related to these interventions may limit their effect, Internet-based and telehealth approaches may facilitate wide accessibility. Novel nonpharmacologic treatments that take different approaches, such as autonomic modulation or attention-based interventions, may also hold therapeutic promise

    Synaptic Processes and Immune-Related Pathways Implicated in Tourette Syndrome

    Get PDF
    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex genetic architecture involving multiple interacting genes. Here, we sought to elucidate the pathways that underlie the neurobiology of the disorder through genome-wide analysis. We analyzed genome-wide genotypic data of 3581 individuals with TS and 7682 ancestry-matched controls and investigated associations of TS with sets of genes that are expressed in particular cell types and operate in specific neuronal and glial functions. We employed a self-contained, set-based association method (SBA) as well as a competitive gene set method (MAGMA) using individual-level genotype data to perform a comprehensive investigation of the biological background of TS. Our SBA analysis identified three significant gene sets after Bonferroni correction, implicating ligand-gated ion channel signaling, lymphocytic, and cell adhesion and transsynaptic signaling processes. MAGMA analysis further supported the involvement of the cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling gene set. The lymphocytic gene set was driven by variants in FLT3, raising an intriguing hypothesis for the involvement of a neuroinflammatory element in TS pathogenesis. The indications of involvement of ligand-gated ion channel signaling reinforce the role of GABA in TS, while the association of cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling gene set provides additional support for the role of adhesion molecules in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study reinforces previous findings but also provides new insights into the neurobiology of TS

    Are Nonclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Associated with Bias Toward Habits?

    Get PDF
    In a sample of student volunteers (N=93), we found that obsessive-compulsive symptoms (although not hoarding) were associated with overreliance on stimulus-response habits at the expense of goal-directed control during instrumental responding. Only checking symptoms were associated with bias toward habits after negative affect was controlled for. Further research is warranted to examine if overreliance on habits represents an aberrant learning process that confers risk for obsessive-compulsive psychopathology

    Abnormal Perceptual Sensitivity in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors

    Get PDF
    Objective Several compulsive grooming habits such as hair pulling, skin picking, and nail biting are collectively known as body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs). Although subclinical BFRBs are common and benign, more severe and damaging manifestations exist that are difficult to manage. Researchers have suggested that BFRBs are maintained by various cognitive, affective, and sensory contingencies. Although the involvement of cognitive and affective processes in BFRBs has been studied, there is a paucity of research on sensory processes. Methods The current study tested whether adults with subclinical or clinical BFRBs would report abnormal patterns of sensory processing as compared to a healthy control sample. Results Adults with clinical BFRBs (n = 26) reported increased sensory sensitivity as compared to persons with subclinical BFRBs (n = 48) and healthy individuals (n = 33). Elevations in sensation avoidance differentiated persons with clinical versus subclinical BFRBs. Sensation seeking patterns were not different between groups. Unexpectedly, BFRB severity was associated with lower registration of sensory stimuli, but this finding may be due to high psychiatric comorbidity rates in the BFRB groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that several sensory abnormalities may underlie BFRBs. Implications for the etiology and treatment of BFRBs are discussed

    Pediatric Prevention: Tic Disorders

    Get PDF

    Pilot Open Case Series of Voice over Internet Protocol-Delivered Assessment and Behavior Therapy for Chronic Tic Disorders

    Get PDF
    Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is an efficacious treatment for children with chronic tic disorders (CTDs). Nevertheless, many families of children with CTDs are unable to access CBIT due to a lack of adequately trained treatment providers, time commitment, and travel distance. This study established the interrater reliability between in-person and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) administrations of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), and examined the preliminary efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of VoIP-delivered CBIT for reducing tics in children with CTDs in an open case series. Across in-person and VoIP administrations of the YGTSS, results showed mean agreement of 91%, 96%, and 95% for motor, phonic, and total tic severity subscales. In the pilot feasibility study, 4 children received 8 weekly sessions of CBIT via VoIP and were assessed at pre- and posttreatment by an independent evaluator. Results showed a 29.44% decrease in clinician-rated tic severity from pre- to posttreatment on the YGTSS. Two of the 4 patients were considered treatment responders at posttreatment, using Clinical Global Impressions–Improvement ratings. Therapeutic alliance, parent and child treatment satisfaction, and videoconferencing satisfaction ratings were high. CBIT was considered feasible to implement via VoIP, although further testing is recommended

    Comparing Fixed-amount and Progressive-amount DRO Schedules for Tic Suppression in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders

    Get PDF
    Chronic tic disorders (CTDs) involve motor and/or vocal tics that often cause substantial distress and impairment. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedules of reinforcement produce robust, but incomplete, reductions in tic frequency in youth with CTDs; however, a more robust reduction may be needed to affect durable clinical change. Standard, fixed‐amount DRO schedules have not commonly yielded such reductions, so we evaluated a novel, progressive‐amount DRO schedule, based on its ability to facilitate sustained abstinence from functionally similar behaviors. Five youth with CTDs were exposed to periods of baseline, fixed‐amount DRO (DRO‐F), and progressive‐amount DRO (DRO‐P). Both DRO schedules produced decreases in tic rate and increases in intertic interval duration, but no systematic differences were seen between the two schedules on any dimension of tic occurrence. The DRO‐F schedule was generally preferred to the DRO‐P schedule. Possible procedural improvements and other future directions are discussed

    Computerized Response Inhibition Training For Children With Trichotillomania

    Get PDF
    Evidence suggests that trichotillomania is characterized by impairment in response inhibition, which is the ability to suppress pre-potent/dominant but inappropriate responses. This study sought to test the feasibility of computerized response inhibition training for children with trichotillomania. Twenty-two children were randomized to the 8-session response inhibition training (RIT; n = 12) or a waitlisted control (WLT; n = 10). Primary outcomes were assessed by an independent evaluator, using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I), and the NIMH Trichotillomania Severity (NIMH-TSS) and Impairment scales (NIMH-TIS) at pre, post-training/waiting, and 1-month follow-up. Relative to the WLT group, the RIT group showed a higher response rate (55% vs. 11%) on the CGI-I and a lower level of impairment on the NIMH-TIS, at post-training. Overall symptom reductions rates on the NIMH-TSS were 34% (RIT) vs. 21% (WLT) at post-training. The RIT\u27s therapeutic gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up, as indicated by the CGI-I responder status (= 66%), and a continuing reduction in symptom on the NIMH-TSS. This pattern of findings was also replicated by the 6 waitlisted children who received the same RIT intervention after post-waiting assessment. Results suggest that computerized RIT may be a potentially useful intervention for trichotillomania

    Emotion Regulation Deficits in Persons with Body-Focused Repetitive Behavior Disorders

    Get PDF
    Background Conceptualizations of emotion dysregulation (ED) and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (BFRBDs) imply that ED may be a central component of BFRBDs as well as a factor that distinguishes BFRBDs from non-impairing, subclinical body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs). The current study empirically tested these observations. Methods One hundred thirty-eight undergraduates (of 1900 who completed a screening survey) completed self-report measures assessing four emotion regulation (ER) deficits hypothesized to underlie ED (alexithymia, maladaptive emotional reactivity, experiential avoidance, and response inhibition when distressed); 34 of these participants had BFRBDs, 64 had subclinical BFRBs, and 42 were unaffected by BFRBs. Results Results indicated that participants with BFRBDs reported higher levels of maladaptive emotional reactivity, experiential avoidance, and response inhibition when distressed than participants with subclinical BFRBs and participants unaffected by BFRBs. These results held even when controlling for comorbidity and total number of reported BFRBs. Participants did not differ on alexithymia. Limitations Limitations of the current study include the BFRB groups’ different distributions of BFRB types (e.g., hair pulling versus skin picking), the sample\u27s demographic uniformity, and the fact that negative affectivity was not controlled when exploring BFRB group differences on ER deficits. Future research should improve on these limitations. Conclusions The current results suggest that ED is a factor that differentiates BFRBDs from subclinical BFRBs. Such results may be useful for generating hypotheses regarding mechanisms responsible for BFRBs’ development into BFRBDs. Furthermore, these results may provide insight into factors that explain the efficacy of more contemporary behavioral treatments for BFRBDs
    corecore