315 research outputs found

    Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC): Disease, carriage and clones

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    Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichiacoli (ExPEC) have a complex phylogeny, broad virulence factor (VF) armament and significant genomic plasticity, and are associated with a spectrum of host infective syndromes ranging from simple urinary tract infection to life-threatening bacteraemia. Their importance as pathogens has come to the fore in recent years, particularly in the context of the global emergence of hyper-virulent and antibiotic resistant strains. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying ExPEC transmission dynamics and clonal selection remain poorly understood. Large-scale epidemiological and clinical studies are urgently required to ascertain the mechanisms underlying these processes to enable the development of novel evidence-based preventative and therapeutic strategies. In the current review, we provide a concise summary of the methods utilised for ExPEC phylogenetic delineation before exploring in detail the associations between ExPEC VFs and site-specific disease. We then consider the role of ExPEC as an intestinal colonist and outline known associations between ExPEC clonal variation, specific disease syndromes and antibiotic resistance

    Activity of OP0595-β-lactam combination against Gram-negative bacteria with extended-spectrum, AmpC and carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactama

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    Background: OP0595 is a diazabicyclooctane that (i) acts as a PBP2-ctive antibacterial, (ii) inhibits Class A and C β-lactamases and (iii), like mecillinam, gives β-lactamase-independent potentiation of β-lactams targeting other PBPs. We tested its behaviour against β-lactam-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters. Methods: Organisms were UK clinical isolates; MICs were determined by CLSI agar dilution for OP0595 alone or combined at 1–4 mg/L with aztreonam, biapenem, cefepime or piperacillin. Results: MICs of OP0595 for Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Klebsiella spp. were mostly 1–4 mg/L but values >4 mg/L were seen for minorities of isolates irrespective of other resistances, and for 50%–60% of those with ertapenem resistance involving porin loss plus ESBL or AmpC activity. OP0595 MICs for Serratia, Proteeae and non-fermenters mostly were >4 mg/L. When its MIC was ≤4 mg/L, OP0595's antibacterial activity dominated combination activity. For ‘OP0595-resistant’ (MIC >4 mg/L) isolates with Class A or C β-lactamases OP0595 achieved strong potentiation of substrate β-lactams, contingent on β-lactamase inhibition. β-Lactamase-independent potentiation was evident with aztreonam, cefepime and piperacillin—less so for biapenem—for many OP0595-resistant Enterobacteriaceae with Class B carbapenemases, which are not inhibited by OP0595. OP0595 acted solely as a β-lactamase inhibitor for non-fermenters. Conclusions: OP0595 inhibited Enterobacteriaceae, not non-fermenters; its combinations had broad activity versus Enterobacteriaceae, largely contingent on OP0595's antibacterial activity but also on inhibition of Class A and C β-lactamases and on the β-lactam-enhancer effect, which allowed activity against many OP0595-resistant metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. For non-fermenters OP0595 acted only as a β-lactamase inhibitor

    Activity of RX-04 Pyrrolocytosine Protein Synthesis Inhibitors against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria

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    Pyrrolocytosines RX-04A-D are designed to bind to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit differently from currently-used antibiotics. The four analogs had broad anti-Gram-negative activity: RX-04A inhibited 94.7% of clinical Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.5-4 μg/ml, with no MICs >8 μg/ml. MICs for multi-resistant carbapenemase producers were up to two-fold higher than for control strains, with values ≥8 μg/ml for one Serratia isolate with porin and efflux lesions. mcr-1 did not affect MICs

    Activity of nacubactam (RG6080/OP0595) combinations against metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae

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    Background: Diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs) are promising β-lactamase inhibitors. Some, including nacubactam (OP0595/RG6080), also bind PBP2 and have an enhancer effect, allowing activity against Enterobacteriaceae with MBLs, which DBOs do not inhibit. We tested the activity of nacubactam/β-lactam combinations against MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods: Test panels comprised (i) 210 consecutive Enterobacteriaceae with NDM or VIM MBLs, as referred by UK diagnostic laboratories, and (ii) 99 supplementary MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, representing less prevalent phenotypes, species and enzymes. MICs were determined by CLSI agar dilution. Results: MICs of nacubactam alone were bimodal, clustering at 1–8 mg/L or >32 mg/L; >85% of values for Escherichia coli and Enterobacter spp. fell into the low MIC cluster, whereas Proteeae were universally resistant and the Klebsiella spp. were divided between the two groups. Depending on the prospective breakpoint (4 + 4 or 8 + 4 mg/L), and on whether all isolates were considered or solely the Consecutive Collection, meropenem/nacubactam and cefepime/nacubactam inhibited 80.3%–93.3% of MBL producers, with substantial gains over nacubactam alone. Against the most resistant isolates (comprising 57 organisms with MICs of nacubactam >32 mg/L, cefepime ≥128 mg/L and meropenem ≥128 mg/L), cefepime/nacubactam at 8 + 4 mg/L inhibited 63.2% and meropenem/nacubactam at 8 + 4 mg/L inhibited 43.9%. Aztreonam/nacubactam, incorporating an MBL-stable β-lactam partner, was almost universally active against the MBL producers and, unlike aztreonam/avibactam, had an enhancer effect. Conclusions: Nacubactam combinations, including those using MBL-labile β-lactams, e.g. meropenem and cefepime, can overcome most MBL-mediated resistance. This behaviour reflects nacubactam’s direct antibacterial and enhancer activity

    In vitro activity of cefepime/zidebactam (WCK 5222) against Gram-negative bacteria

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    Background: Diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs) inhibit class A, class C and some class D β-lactamases. A few also bind PBP2, conferring direct antibacterial activity and a β-lactamase-independent ‘enhancer' effect, potentiating β-lactams targeting PBP3. We tested a novel DBO, zidebactam, combined with cefepime. Methods: CLSI agar dilution MICs were determined with cefepime/zidebactam in a chequerboard format. Bactericidal activity was also measured. Results: Zidebactam MICs were ≤2 mg/L (mostly 0.12–0.5 mg/L) for most Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter spp., but were >32 mg/L for Proteeae, most Serratia and a few E. coli, Klebsiella and Enterobacter/Citrobacter. The antibacterial activity of zidebactam dominated chequerboard studies for Enterobacteriaceae, but potentiation of cefepime was apparent for zidebactam-resistant isolates with class A and C enzymes, illustrating β-lactamase inhibition. Overall, cefepime/zidebactam inhibited almost all Enterobacteriaceae with AmpC, ESBL, K1, KPC and OXA-48-like β-lactamases at 1 + 1 mg/L and also 29 of 35 isolates with metallo-carbapenemases, including several resistant to zidebactam alone. Zidebactam MICs for 36 of 50 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 4–16 mg/L, and the majority of AmpC, metallo-β-lactamase-producing and cystic fibrosis isolates were susceptible to cefepime/zidebactam at 8 + 8 mg/L. Zidebactam MICs for Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were >32 mg/L; potentiation of cefepime was frequent for S. maltophilia, but minimal for A. baumannii. Kill curve results largely supported MICs. Conclusion: Zidebactam represents a second triple-action DBO following RG6080, with lower MICs for Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. Clinical evaluation of cefepime/zidebactam must critically evaluate the reliance that can be placed on this direct antibacterial activity and on the enhancer effect as well as β-lactamase inhibition

    Potential of high-dose cefepime/tazobactam against multi-resistant Gram-negative pathogens

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    Background: Early β-lactamase inhibitors were combined with established penicillins, but different combinations may be more appropriate to counter current β-lactamase threats, with development facilitated by the US Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) Act. Cefepime/tazobactam is especially attractive, combining an AmpC-stable cephalosporin with a clinically established inhibitor, active against ESBLs and suitable for high-dose administration. Methods: Organisms (n = 563) were clinical isolates submitted to the UK national reference laboratory. MICs were determined by CLSI agar dilution with tazobactam at 4 mg/L and, for a subset, at 8 mg/L. Results: Cefepime/tazobactam 8 + 4 mg/L achieved coverage of 96%–100% of Enterobacteriaceae with penicillinases, AmpC, ESBL, K1 or OXA-48 β-lactamases. Even at 1 + 4 mg/L, the combination inhibited >94% of isolates with penicillinases, AmpC enzymes or ESBLs. Most Enterobacteriaceae with KPC and NDM carbapenemase were resistant at current cefepime breakpoints but 80% of those with VIM types were susceptible at 8 + 4 mg/L. Tazobactam did little to potentiate cefepime against non-fermenter groups, though gains were seen against AmpC-producing Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Increasing the tazobactam concentration to 8 mg/L gave further small increases in activity against Enterobacteriaceae groups. Conclusions: High-dose cefepime/tazobactam, justifying an 8 + 4 or 8 + 8 mg/L breakpoint, can achieve a carbapenem-like spectrum, with some additional coverage of OXA-48 (and maybe VIM) Enterobacteriaceae. Clinical evaluation is warranted

    Data Augmentation for Graph Neural Networks

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    Data augmentation has been widely used to improve generalizability of machine learning models. However, comparatively little work studies data augmentation for graphs. This is largely due to the complex, non-Euclidean structure of graphs, which limits possible manipulation operations. Augmentation operations commonly used in vision and language have no analogs for graphs. Our work studies graph data augmentation for graph neural networks (GNNs) in the context of improving semi-supervised node-classification. We discuss practical and theoretical motivations, considerations and strategies for graph data augmentation. Our work shows that neural edge predictors can effectively encode class-homophilic structure to promote intra-class edges and demote inter-class edges in given graph structure, and our main contribution introduces the GAug graph data augmentation framework, which leverages these insights to improve performance in GNN-based node classification via edge prediction. Extensive experiments on multiple benchmarks show that augmentation via GAug improves performance across GNN architectures and datasets.Comment: AAAI 2021. This complete version contains the Appendi

    Pathogens of skin and skin-structure infections in the UK and their susceptibility to antibiotics, including ceftaroline

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    Objectives: Bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs) are frequent settings for antibiotic use. We surveyed their UK aetiology and pathogen susceptibility, including susceptibility to ceftaroline. Methods: Consecutive SSSI isolates were collected at 35 UK hospitals, to a maximum of 60/site, together with 15 ‘supplementary’ MRSA/site. Isolates were re-identified and BSAC susceptibility testing was performed, with parallel CLSI agar testing for ceftaroline. Results: Isolates (n¼1908) were collected from 1756 hospitalized patients, predominantly with surgical and traumatic infections, abscesses and infected ulcers and largely from general medicine and general surgery patients. They included 1271 Staphylococcus aureus (201 MRSA), 162 b-haemolytic streptococci, 269 Enterobacteriaceae, 138 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 37 enterococci. Most (944/1756) patients had monomicrobial MSSA infections. Rates of resistance to quinolones, gentamicin and cephalosporins were ,20% in Enterobacteriaceae and ,10% in P. aeruginosa. MRSA rates varied greatly among hospitals and were 2.5-fold higher in general medicine than in general surgery patients. At breakpoint, ceftaroline inhibited: (i) all MSSA and 97.6% of MRSA, with MICs of 2 mg/L for the few resistant MRSA; (ii) all b-haemolytic streptococci; and (iii) 83% of Enterobacteriaceae. High-level ceftaroline resistance in Enterobacteriaceae involved ESBLs or AmpCenzymes. Ceftaroline MICs by CLSI methodology generally equalled those by BSAC or were 2-fold higher, but this differential was 4–16-fold for P. aeruginosa. Conclusions: Irrespective of patient group, SSSIs were dominated by S. aureus. Most pathogens were susceptible, but 15.8% of S. aureus were MRSA, with locally higher prevalence

    WCK 4234, a novel diazabicyclooctane potentiating carbapenems against Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter with class A, C and D β-lactamases

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    Background: Several diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs) are under development as inhibitors of Class A and C -lactamases. Inhibition of OXA (Class D) carbapenemases is variable, with those of Acinetobacter spp. remaining notably resistant. We describe a novel DBO, WCK 4234 (Wockhardt), with distinctive activity against OXA carbapenemases.  Methods: MICs of imipenem and meropenem were determined by CLSI agar dilution with WCK 4234 added at 4 or 8 mg/L. Test organisms were clinical Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with carbapenemases or carbapenem resistance via porin loss plus AmpC or ESBL activity. AmpC mutants were also tested.  Results: WCK 4234, which lacked direct antibacterial activity, strongly potentiated imipenem and meropenem against Enterobacteriaceae with OXA-48/181, KPC enzymes, or with combinations of impermeability and AmpC or ESBL activity, with MICs reduced to <2 mg/L in almost all cases. Carbapenems likewise were potentiated against P. aeruginosa (n=2) with OXA-181 enzyme, with MICs reduced from 64-128 mg/L to 2-8 mg/L and against A. baumannii with OXA carbapenemases, particularly OXA-23 or hyperproduced OXA-51, with MICs reduced to <2 mg/L for 9/10 acinetobacters with OXA-23 enzyme. Carbapenems were not potentiated against Enterobacteriaceae or non-fermenters with metallo--lactamases.   Conclusion: WCK 4234 distinctively overcame resistance mediated by OXA-type carbapenemases, including in A. baumannii. It behaved similarly to other DBOs against strains with KPC carbapenemases or combinations of impermeability and ESBL or AmpC activity

    NDM-1 carbapenemase resistance gene vehicles emergent on distinct plasmid backbones from the IncL/M family

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    Objectives: To assess the genetic contexts surrounding blaNDM-1 genes carried on IncM plasmids harboured by six carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) isolates referred to the UK Health Security Agency's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infections (AMRHAI) Reference Unit. Methods: Between 2014 and 2018, the AMRHAI Reference Unit undertook WGS of CPE isolates using Illumina NGS. Nanopore sequencing was used for selected isolates and publicly available plasmid references were downloaded. Analysis of incRNA, which encodes the antisense RNA regulating plasmidic repA gene expression, was performed and bioinformatics tools were used to analyse whole plasmid sequences. Results: Of 894 NDM-positive isolates of Enterobacterales, 44 NDM-1-positive isolates of five different species (Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca) encoded the IncRNA locus of IncM2 plasmids. Long-read sequencing of six diverse isolates revealed related IncM2, NDM-1-encoding plasmids. Plasmid 'backbone' areas were conserved and contrasted with highly variable resistance regions. Sub-groupings of IncM2 plasmids encoding blaNDM-1 were detected; one sub-group occurred in five different health regions of England in every year. The diversity of NDM-1-encoding resistance gene integrons and transposons and their insertions sites in the plasmids indicated that NDM-1 has been acquired repeatedly by IncM2 variants. Conclusions: The use of sequencing helped inform: (i) a wide geographical distribution of isolates encoding NDM-1 on emergent IncM2 plasmids; (ii) variant plasmids have acquired NDM-1 separately; and (iii) dynamic arrangements and evolution of the resistance elements in this plasmid group. The geographical and temporal distribution of IncM2 plasmids that encode NDM-1 highlights them as a public health threat that requires ongoing monitoring