5,319 research outputs found

    Scalar Field Equations from Quantum Gravity during Inflation

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    We exploit a previous computation of the self-mass-squared from quantum gravity to include quantum corrections to the scalar evolution equation. The plane wave mode functions are shown to receive no significant one loop corrections at late times. This result probably applies as well to the inflaton of scalar-driven inflation. If so, there is no significant correction to the ŌēŌē\phi \phi correlator that plays a crucial role in computations of the power spectrum.Comment: 19 pages, 5 table

    One Loop Corrected Mode Functions for SQED during Inflation

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    We solve the one loop effective scalar field equations for spatial plane waves in massless, minimally coupled scalar quantum electrodynamics on a locally de Sitter background. The computation is done in two different gauges: a non-de Sitter invariant analogue of Feynman gauge, and in the de Sitter invariant, Lorentz gauge. In each case our result is that the finite part of the conformal counterterm can be chosen so that the mode functions experience no significant one loop corrections at late times. This is in perfect agreement with a recent, all orders stochastic prediction.Comment: 26 pages, uses LaTeX 2 epsilon, no figures, version 2 has an updated reference lis

    A circuit topology approach to categorizing changes in biomolecular structure

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    The biological world is composed of folded linear molecules of bewildering topological complexity and diversity. The topology of folded biomolecules such as proteins and ribonucleic acids is often subject to change during biological processes. Despite intense research, we lack a solid mathematical framework that summarizes these operations in a principled manner. Circuit topology, which formalizes the arrangements of intramolecular contacts, serves as a general mathematical framework to analyze the topological characteristics of folded linear molecules. In this work, we translate familiar molecular operations in biology, such as duplication, permutation, and elimination of contacts, into the language of circuit topology. We show that for such operations there are corresponding matrix representations as well as basic rules that serve as a foundation for understanding these operations within the context of a coherent algebraic framework. We present several biological examples and provide a simple computational framework for creating and analyzing the circuit diagrams of proteins and nucleic acids. We expect our study and future developments in this direction to facilitate a deeper understanding of natural molecular processes and to provide guidance to engineers for generating complex polymeric materials

    Leading Log Solution for Inflationary Yukawa

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    We generalize Starobinskii's stochastic technique to the theory of a massless, minimally coupled scalar interacting with a massless fermion in a locally de Sitter geometry. The scalar is an ``active'' field that can engender infrared logarithms. The fermion is a ``passive'' field that cannot cause infrared logarithms but which can carry them, and which can also induce new interactions between the active fields. The procedure for dealing with passive fields is to integrate them out, then stochastically simplify the resulting effective action following Starobinski\u{\i}. Because Yukawa theory is quadratic in the fermion this can be done explicitly using the classic solution of Candelas and Raine. We check the resulting stochastic formulation against an explicit two loop computation. We also derive a nonperturbative, leading log result for the stress tensor. Because the scalar effective potential induced by fermions is unbounded below, back-reaction from this model might dynamically cancel an arbitrarily large cosmological constant.Comment: 35 pages, LaTeX 2epsilon, 4 figures (using axodraw), version 2 has an updated reference lis

    Two Loop Scalar Bilinears for Inflationary SQED

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    We evaluate the one and two loop contributions to the expectation values of two coincident and gauge invariant scalar bilinears in the theory of massless, minimally coupled scalar quantum electrodynamics on a locally de Sitter background. One of these bilinears is the product of two covariantly differentiated scalars, the other is the product of two undifferentiated scalars. The computations are done using dimensional regularization and the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Our results are in perfect agreement with the stochastic predictions at this order.Comment: 43 pages, LaTeX 2epsilon, 5 figures (using axodraw.sty) Version 2 has updated references and important corrections to Tables 3-5 and to eqns (139-141), (145-146), (153-155), (158) and (160

    Quantum Gravity Corrections to the One Loop Scalar Self-Mass during Inflation

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    We compute the one loop corrections from quantum gravity to the self-mass-squared of a massless, minimally coupled scalar on a locally de Sitter background. The calculation was done using dimensional regularization and renormalized by subtracting fourth order BPHZ counterterms. Our result should determine whether quantum gravitational loop corrections can significantly alter the dynamics of a scalar inflaton.Comment: 47 pages, 3 figures, 20 tables, uses LaTeX 2 epsilon, version 2 revised for publication in Physical Review

    Charged Scalar Self-Mass during Inflation

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    We compute the one loop self-mass of a charged massless, minimally coupled scalar in a locally de Sitter background geometry. The computation is done in two different gauges: the noninvariant generalization of Feynman gauge which gives the simplest expression for the photon propagator and the de Sitter invariant gauge of Allen and Jacobson. In each case dimensional regularization is employed and fully renormalized results are obtained. By using our result in the linearized, effective field equations one can infer how the scalar responds to the dielectric medium produced by inflationary particle production. We also work out the result for a conformally coupled scalar. Although the conformally coupled case is of no great physical interest the fact that we obtain a manifestly de Sitter invariant form for its self-mass-squared establishes that our noninvariant gauge introduces no physical breaking of de Sitter invariance at one loop order.Comment: 41 pages, LaTeX 2epsilon, 3 figures, uses axodra

    Primordial Density Perturbations and Reheating from Gravity

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    We consider the presence and evolution of primordial density perturbations in a cosmological model based on a simple ansatz which captures -- by providing a set of effective gravitational field equations -- the strength of the enhanced quantum loop effects that can arise during inflation. After deriving the general equations that perturbations obey, we concentrate on scalar perturbations and show that their evolution is quite different than that of conventional inflationary models but still phenomenologically acceptable. The main reason for this novel evolution is the presence of an oscillating regime after the end of inflation which makes all super-horizon scalar modes oscillate. The same reason allows for a natural and very fast reheating mechanism for the universe.Comment: 37 pages, 2 figures, uses LaTeX2

    Reply to `Can infrared gravitons screen őõ\Lambda?'

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    We reply to the recent criticism by Garriga and Tanaka of our proposal that quantum gravitational loop corrections may lead to a secular screening of the effective cosmological constant. Their argument rests upon a renormalization scheme in which the composite operator (R‚ąíg‚ąí4őõ‚ąíg)ren(R \sqrt{-g} - 4 \Lambda \sqrt{-g} )_{\rm ren} is defined to be the trace of the renormalized field equations. Although this is a peculiar prescription, we show that it {\it does not preclude secular screening}. Moreover, we show that a constant Ricci scalar {\it does not even classically} imply a constant expansion rate. Other important points are: (1) the quantity RrenR_{\rm ren} of Garriga and Tanaka is neither a properly defined composite operator, nor is it constant; (2) gauge dependence does not render a Green's function devoid of physical content; (3) scalar models on a non-dynamical de Sitter background (for which there is no gauge issue) can induce arbitrarily large secular contributions to the stress tensor; (4) the same secular corrections appear in observable quantities in quantum gravity; and (5) the prospects seem good for deriving a simple stochastic formulation of quantum gravity in which the leading secular effects can be summed and for which the expectation values of even complicated, gauge invariant operators can be computed at leading order.Comment: 17 pages, no figures, uses LaTeX 2epsilon. Version 2 adds important points about R_ren being neither finite nor constant, and that a constant Ricci scalar is not even classically an indicator of de Sitter expansion. Version 3 corrects some typoes and updates the reference
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