410 research outputs found

    Photometry of SN 2002ic and Implications for the Progenitor Mass-Loss History

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    We present new pre-maximum and late-time optical photometry of the Type Ia/IIn supernova 2002ic. These observations are combined with the published V-band magnitudes of Hamuy et al. (2003) and the VLT spectrophotometry of Wang et al. (2004) to construct the most extensive light curve to date of this unusual supernova. The observed flux at late time is significantly higher relative to the flux at maximum than that of any other observed Type Ia supernova and continues to fade very slowly a year after explosion. Our analysis of the light curve suggests that a non-Type Ia supernova component becomes prominent 20\sim20 days after explosion. Modeling of the non-Type Ia supernova component as heating from the shock interaction of the supernova ejecta with pre-existing circumstellar material suggests the presence of a 1.71015\sim1.7 10^{15} cm gap or trough between the progenitor system and the surrounding circumstellar material. This gap could be due to significantly lower mass-loss 15(vw/10km/s)1\sim15 (v_w/10 km/s)^{-1} years prior to explosion or evacuation of the circumstellar material by a low-density fast wind. The latter is consistent with observed properties of proto-planetary nebulae and with models of white-dwarf + asymptotic giant branch star progenitor systems with the asymptotic giant branch star in the proto-planetary nebula phase.Comment: accepted for publication in Ap

    SweetSpot: Near-Infrared Observations of Thirteen Type Ia Supernovae from a New NOAO Survey Probing the Nearby Smooth Hubble Flow

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    We present 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the restframe near-infrared (NIR) from 0.02 < z < 0.09 with the WIYN High-resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope. With only 1-3 points per light curve and a prior on the time of maximum from the spectrum used to type the object we measure an H-band dispersion of spectroscopically normal SNe Ia of 0.164 mag. These observations continue to demonstrate the improved standard brightness of SNe Ia in H-band even with limited data. Our sample includes two SNe Ia at z ~ 0.09, which represent the most distant restframe NIR H-band observations published to date. This modest sample of 13 NIR SNe Ia represent the pilot sample for "SweetSpot" - a three-year NOAO Survey program that will observe 144 SNe Ia in the smooth Hubble flow. By the end of the survey we will have measured the relative distance to a redshift of z ~ 0.05 to 1%. Nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations such as these will test the standard nature of SNe Ia in the restframe NIR, allow insight into the nature of dust, and provide a critical anchor for future cosmological SN Ia surveys at higher redshift.Comment: 36 pages, 8 figures, Submitted to Ap

    Novae as a Mechanism for Producing Cavities around the Progenitors of SN 2002ic and Other SNe Ia

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    We propose that a nova shell ejected from a recurrent nova progenitor system created the evacuated region around the explosion center of SN 2002ic. In this picture, periodic shell ejections due to nova explosions on a white dwarf sweep up the slow wind from the binary companion, creating density variations and instabilities that lead to structure in the circumstellar medium (CSM). Our model naturally explains the observed gap between the supernova explosion center and the CSM in SN 2002ic, accounts for the density variations observed in the CSM, and resolves the coincidence problem of the timing of the explosion of SN 2002ic with respect to the apparent cessation of mass-loss in the progenitor system. We also consider such nova outburst sweeping as a generic feature of Type Ia supernovae with recurrent nova progenitors.Comment: Accepted to ApJL. 11 pages, 1 tabl

    The First Data Release from SweetSpot: 74 Supernovae in 36 Nights on WIYN+WHIRC

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    SweetSpot is a three-year National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Survey program to observe Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the smooth Hubble flow with the WIYN High-resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope. We here present data from the first half of this survey, covering the 2011B-2013B NOAO semesters, and consisting of 493 calibrated images of 74 SNe Ia observed in the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) from 0.02<z<0.090.02 < z < 0.09. Because many observed supernovae require host galaxy subtraction from templates taken in later semesters, this release contains only the 186 NIR (JHKsJHK_s) data points for the 33 SNe Ia that do not require host-galaxy subtraction. The sample includes 4 objects with coverage beginning before the epoch of B-band maximum and 27 beginning within 20 days of B-band maximum. We also provide photometric calibration between the WIYN+WHIRC and Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) systems along with light curves for 786 2MASS stars observed alongside the SNe Ia. This work is the first in a planned series of three SweetSpot Data Releases. Future releases will include the full set of images from all 3 years of the survey, including host-galaxy reference images and updated data processing and host-galaxy reference subtraction. SweetSpot will provide a well-calibrated sample that will help improve our ability to standardize distance measurements to SNe Ia, examine the intrinsic optical-NIR colors of SNe Ia at different epochs, explore nature of dust in other galaxies, and act as a stepping stone for more distant, potentially space-based surveys.Comment: Published in AJ. 10 tables. 11 figures. Lightcurve plots included as a figureset and available in source tarball. Data online at http://www.phyast.pitt.edu/~wmwv/SweetSpot/DR1_data

    Dark Energy Accretion onto a Black Hole in an Expanding Universe

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    By using the solution describing a black hole embedded in the FLRW universe, we obtain the evolving equation of the black hole mass expressed in terms of the cosmological parameters. The evolving equation indicates that in the phantom dark energy universe the black hole mass becomes zero before the Big Rip is reached.Comment: 7 pages, no figures, errors is correcte

    Interacting Cosmic Fluids in Brans-Dicke Cosmology

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    We provide a detailed description for power-law scaling FRW cosmological models in Brans-Dicke theory dominated by two interacting fluid components during the expansion of the universe.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figure

    Precision measurements of large scale structure with future type Ia supernova surveys

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    Type Ia supernovae are currently the best known standard candles at cosmological distances. In addition to providing a powerful probe of dark energy they are an ideal source of information about the peculiar velocity field of the local universe. Even with the very small number of supernovae presently available it has been possible to measure the dipole and quadrupole of the local velocity field out to z~0.025. With future continuous all-sky surveys like the LSST project the luminosity distances of tens of thousands of nearby supernovae will be measured accurately. This will allow for a determination of the local velocity structure of the universe as a function of redshift with unprecedented accuracy, provided the redshifts of the host galaxies are known. Using catalogues of mock surveys we estimate that future low redshift supernova surveys will be able to probe sigma-8 to a precision of roughly 5% at 95% C.L. This is comparable to the precision in future galaxy and weak lensing surveys and with a relatively modest observational effort it will provide a crucial cross-check on future measurements of the matter power spectrum.Comment: 18 pages, 9 figures, submitted to JCA

    Improving the LSST dithering pattern and cadence for dark energy studies

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    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will explore the entire southern sky over 10 years starting in 2022 with unprecedented depth and time sampling in six filters, ugrizyugrizy. Artificial power on the scale of the 3.5 deg LSST field-of-view will contaminate measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), which fall at the same angular scale at redshift z1z \sim 1. Using the HEALPix framework, we demonstrate the impact of an "un-dithered" survey, in which 17%17\% of each LSST field-of-view is overlapped by neighboring observations, generating a honeycomb pattern of strongly varying survey depth and significant artificial power on BAO angular scales. We find that adopting large dithers (i.e., telescope pointing offsets) of amplitude close to the LSST field-of-view radius reduces artificial structure in the galaxy distribution by a factor of \sim10. We propose an observing strategy utilizing large dithers within the main survey and minimal dithers for the LSST Deep Drilling Fields. We show that applying various magnitude cutoffs can further increase survey uniformity. We find that a magnitude cut of r<27.3r < 27.3 removes significant spurious power from the angular power spectrum with a minimal reduction in the total number of observed galaxies over the ten-year LSST run. We also determine the effectiveness of the observing strategy for Type Ia SNe and predict that the main survey will contribute \sim100,000 Type Ia SNe. We propose a concentrated survey where LSST observes one-third of its main survey area each year, increasing the number of main survey Type Ia SNe by a factor of \sim1.5, while still enabling the successful pursuit of other science drivers.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, published in SPIE proceedings; corrected typo in equation