34 research outputs found

    A Snapshot of ECE Apprenticeship Programs

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    This publication offers a closer look at the key features of existing apprenticeship programs across the United States‚ÄĒsuch as the diversity and range of approaches to credentials, partnership models, funding, and how programs deliver quality mentoring and/or coaching support‚ÄĒto reimagine how program quality can be strengthened to deepen learning for participants.https://educate.bankstreet.edu/bsec/1012/thumbnail.jp

    Association analysis of ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type-2 diabetes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>To determine association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADP ribosyltransferase-1 (ADPRT1), aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1), receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-2 (GFPT2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genes with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes; and to identify epistatic interactionss between genes from the present study and those from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and chemokine-cytokine, dopaminergic and oxidative stress pathways (previously investigated using the same sample set).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Type 2 diabetes subjects with CRI (serum creatinine ‚Č•3.0 mg/dl) constituted the cases (n = 196), and ethnicity and age matched individuals with diabetes for a duration of ‚Č• 10 years, normal renal functions and normoalbuminuria recruited as controls (n = 225). Allelic and genotypic constitution of 10 polymorphisms (SNPs) from five genes namely- <it>ADPRT1</it>, <it>AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 </it>and <it>PAI-1 </it>with diabetic CRI was investigated. The genetic associations were evaluated by computation of odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to correlate various clinical parameters with genotypes, and to study epistatic interactions between SNPs in different genes.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Single nucleotide polymorphisms -429 T>C in <it>RAGE </it>and rs7725 C>T SNP in 3' UTR in <it>GFPT2 </it>gene showed a trend towards association with diabetic CRI. Investigation using miRBase statistical tool revealed that rs7725 in <it>GFPT2 </it>was a perfect target for predicted miRNA (hsa miR-378) suggesting the presence of the variant 'T' allele may result in an upregulation of GFPT2 contributing to diabetic renal complication. Epistatic interaction between SNPs in transforming growth factor <it>TGF-ő≤1 </it>(investigated using the same sample set and reported elsewhere) and <it>GFPT2 </it>genotype was observed.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Association of SNPs in <it>RAGE </it>and <it>GFPT2 </it>suggest that the genes involved in modulation of oxidative pathway could be major contributor to diabetic chronic renal insufficiency. In addition, GFPT2 mediated overproduction of TGF-ő≤1 leading to endothelial expansion and thereby CRI seems likely, suggested by our observation of a significant interaction between GFPT2 with TGF-ő≤1 genes. Further, identification of predicted miRNA targets spanning the associated SNP in <it>GFPT2 </it>implicates the rs7725 SNP in transcriptional regulation of the gene, and suggests <it>GFPT2 </it>could be a relevant target for pharmacological intervention. Larger replication studies are needed to confirm these observations.</p

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective, international, multicentre cohort study