83 research outputs found

    Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe: The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium.

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    Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-sectional associations with IOP in 43,500 European adults from 12 cohort studies belonging to the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. Each study conducted multivariable linear regression with IOP as the outcome variable and results were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. The association of standardized study IOP with latitude was tested using meta-regression. Higher IOP was observed in men (0.18 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.06, 0.31; P = 0.004) and with higher body mass index (0.21 mmHg per 5 kg/m2; 95 % CI 0.14, 0.28; P < 0.001), shorter height (-0.17 mmHg per 10 cm; 95 % CI -0.25, -0.08; P < 0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (0.17 mmHg per 10 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.12, 0.22; P < 0.001) and more myopic refraction (0.06 mmHg per Dioptre; 95 % CI 0.03, 0.09; P < 0.001). An inverted U-shaped trend was observed between age and IOP, with IOP increasing up to the age of 60 and decreasing in participants older than 70 years. We found no significant association between standardized IOP and study location latitude (P = 0.76). Novel findings of our study include the association of lower IOP in taller people and an inverted-U shaped association of IOP with age. We found no evidence of significant variation in IOP across Europe. Despite the limited range of latitude amongst included studies, this finding is in favour of collaborative pooling of data from studies examining environmental and genetic determinants of IOP in Europeans.Medical Research Council (G1000143), Cancer Research UK (C864/A14136), Research into Ageing (262), Wellcome Trust, Richard Desmond Charitable Trust (via Fight for Sight), National Institute for Health Research, Stichting Lijf en Leven, Krimpen aan de Lek, MD Fonds, Utrecht, Rotterdamse Vereniging Blindenbelangen, Rotterdam, Stichting Oogfonds Nederland, Utrecht, Blindenpenning, Amsterdam, Blindenhulp, The Hague, Algemene Nederlandse Vereniging ter Voorkoming van Blindheid (ANVVB), Doorn, Landelijke Stichting voor Blinden en Slechtzienden, Utrecht, Swart van Essen, Rotterdam, Stichting Winckel-Sweep, Utrecht, Henkes Stichting, Rotterdam, Lameris Ootech BV, Nieuwegein, Medical Workshop, de Meern, NWO (Graduate Programme 2010 BOO (022.002.023)), Laboratoires Thea (Clermont-Ferrand, France), inter regional grant (PHRC) and the regional Council of Burgundy, European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), Rheinland-Pfalz AZ 961-386261/733), Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Boehringer Ingelheim, PHILIPS Medical Systems, Novartis Pharma, Novartis European Union (European Social Fund—ESF), Greek National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) (Research Funding Program: THALES), European Social FundThis is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-016-0191-

    Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe: The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium

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    Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-sectional associations with IOP in 43,500 European adults from 12 cohort studies belonging to the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. Each study conducted multivariable linear regression with IOP as the outcome variable and results were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. The association of standardized study IOP with latitude was tested using meta-regression. Higher IOP was observed in men (0.18 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.06, 0.31; P = 0.004) and with higher body mass index (0.21 mmHg per 5 kg/m2; 95 % CI 0.14, 0.28; P < 0.001), shorter height (−0.17 mmHg per 10 cm; 95 % CI –0.25, −0.08; P < 0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (0.17 mmHg per 10 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.12, 0.22; P < 0.001) and more myopic refraction (0.06 mmHg per Dioptre; 95 % CI 0.03, 0.09; P < 0.001). An inverted U-shaped trend was observed between age and IOP, with IOP increasing up to the age of 60 and decreasing in participants older than 70 years. We found no significant association between standardized IOP and study location latitude (P = 0.76). Novel findings of our study include the association of lower IOP in taller people and an inverted-U shaped association of IOP with age. We found no evidence of significant variation in IOP across Europe. Despite the limited range of latitude amongst included studies, this finding is in favour of collaborative pooling of data from studies examining environmental and genetic determinants of IOP in Europeans

    Variability of Bio-Clinical Parameters in Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: A Nonhuman Primate AIDS Model

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    BACKGROUND: Although Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques (Ch RhMs) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have been used for many years to evaluate the efficacy of AIDS vaccines and therapeutics, the bio-clinical variability of such a nonhuman primate AIDS model was so far not established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By randomizing 150 (78 male and 72 female) Ch RhMs with diverse MHC class I alleles into 3 groups (50 animals per group) challenged with intrarectal (i.r.) SIVmac239, intravenous (i.v.) SIVmac239, or i.v. SIVmac251, we evaluated variability in bio-clinical endpoints for 118 weeks. All SIV-challenged Ch RhMs became seropositive for SIV during 1-2 weeks. Plasma viral load (VL) peaked at weeks 1-2 and then declined to set-point levels as from week 5. The set-point VL was 30 fold higher in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.)-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.)-infected animals. This difference in plasma VL increased overtime (>100 fold as from week 68). The rates of progression to AIDS or death were more rapid in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.)-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.)-infected animals. No significant difference in bio-clinical endpoints was observed in animals challenged with i.r. or i.v. SIVmac239. The variability (standard deviation) in peak/set-point VL was nearly one-half lower in animals infected with SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.) than in those infected with SIVmac251 (i.v.), allowing that the same treatment-related difference can be detected with one-half fewer animals using SIVmac239 than using SIVmac251. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide solid estimates of variability in bio-clinical endpoints needed when designing studies using the Ch RhM SIV model and contribute to the improving quality and standardization of preclinical studies

    Changes in the Circadian Rhythm in Patients with Primary Glaucoma

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    Purpose The current study was undertaken to investigate whether glaucoma affects the sleep quality and whether there is any difference between patients with primary glaucoma (primary open angle glaucoma, POAG and primary angle-closure glaucoma, PACG) and healthy subjects, using a validated self-rated questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Methods The sleep quality of patients with POAG and PACG was tested against normal controls. Subjects were divided into three sub-groups according to age. Differences in the frequency of sleep disturbances (PSQI score >7) were assessed. The differences of sleep quality within the three groups and within the POAG group depending on the patients’ intraocular pressure (IOP) and impairment of visual field (VF) were also studied. Results 92 POAG patients, 48 PACG patients and 199 controls were included. Sleep quality declined with age in control and POAG group (tendency chi-square, P0.05). No significant differences were found in POAG group between patients with a highest IOP in daytime and at nighttime (χ2-test, P>0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of sleep disorders was higher in patients with POAG and PACG than in controls. PACG patients seemed to have a more serious problem of sleep disorders than POAG patients between 61 to 80 years old. No correlation was found between the prevalence of sleep disorders and impairment of VF or the time when POAG patients showed a highest IOP

    Rapid Dissemination of SIV Follows Multisite Entry after Rectal Inoculation

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    Receptive ano-rectal intercourse is a major cause of HIV infection in men having sex with men and in heterosexuals. Current knowledge of the mechanisms of entry and dissemination during HIV rectal transmission is scarce and does not allow the development of preventive strategies. We investigated the early steps of rectal infection in rhesus macaques inoculated with the pathogenic isolate SIVmac251 and necropsied four hours to nine days later. All macaques were positive for SIV. Control macaques inoculated with heat-inactivated virus were consistently negative for SIV. SIV DNA was detected in the rectum as early as four hours post infection by nested PCR for gag in many laser-microdissected samples of lymphoid aggregates and lamina propria but never in follicle-associated epithelium. Scarce SIV antigen positive cells were observed by immunohistofluorescence in the rectum, among intraepithelial and lamina propria cells as well as in clusters in lymphoid aggregates, four hours post infection and onwards. These cells were T cells and non-T cells that were not epithelial cells, CD68+ macrophages, DC-SIGN+ cells or fascin+ dendritic cells. DC-SIGN+ cells carried infectious virus. Detection of Env singly spliced mRNA in the mucosa by nested RT-PCR indicated ongoing viral replication. Strikingly, four hours post infection colic lymph nodes were also infected in all macaques as either SIV DNA or infectious virus was recovered. Rapid SIV entry and dissemination is consistent with trans-epithelial transport. Virions appear to cross the follicle-associated epithelium, and also the digestive epithelium. Viral replication could however be more efficient in lymphoid aggregates. The initial sequence of events differs from both vaginal and oral infections, which implies that prevention strategies for rectal transmission will have to be specific. Microbicides will need to protect both digestive and follicle-associated epithelia. Vaccines will need to induce immunity in lymph nodes as well as in the rectum

    Renal protein excretion after exercise in man

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    SCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe
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