121 research outputs found

    Inflammatory Markers Associated With Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

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    BackgroundDespite evidence for higher risk of coronary artery disease among HIV+ individuals, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated associations of inflammatory markers with subclinical coronary artery disease in 923 participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (575 HIV+ and 348 HIV- men) who underwent noncontrast computed tomography scans for coronary artery calcification, the majority (n=692) also undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography.Methods and resultsOutcomes included presence and extent of coronary artery calcification, plus computed tomography angiography analysis of presence, composition, and extent of coronary plaques and severity of coronary stenosis. HIV+ men had significantly higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, and soluble-tumor necrosis factor-α receptor (sTNFαR) I and II (all P<0.01) and a higher prevalence of noncalcified plaque (63% versus 54%, P=0.02) on computed tomography angiography. Among HIV+ men, for every SD increase in log-interleukin-6 and log intercellular adhesion molecule-1, there was a 30% and 60% increase, respectively, in the prevalence of coronary stenosis ≥50% (all P<0.05). Similarly, sTNFαR I and II in HIV+ participants were associated with an increase in prevalence of coronary stenosis ≥70% (P<0.05). Higher levels of interleukin-6, sTNFαR I, and sTNFαR II were also associated with greater coronary artery calcification score in HIV+ men (P<0.01).ConclusionsHigher inflammatory marker levels are associated with greater prevalence of coronary stenosis in HIV+ men. Our findings underscore the need for further study to elucidate the relationships of inflammatory pathways with coronary artery disease in HIV+ individuals

    Fat distribution and longitudinal anthropometric changes in HIV-infected men with and without clinical evidence of lipodystrophy and HIV-uninfected controls: A substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Fat abnormalities are common among HIV-infected persons, but few studies have compared regional body fat distribution, including visceral fat, in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons and their subsequent trajectories in body composition over time.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Between 1999 and 2002, 33 men with clinical evidence of lipodystrophy (LIPO+), 23 HIV-infected men without clinical evidence of lipodytrophy (LIPO-), and 33 HIV-uninfected men were recruited from the four sites of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computerized tomography of the abdomen and thigh, and circumference measurements of the waist, hip and thigh. Circumference measurements at each semi-annual MACS visit between recruitment and 2008 were used to compare average annual anthropometric changes in the 3 groups.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Body mass index (BMI) was lower in LIPO+ men than in the LIPO- men and the HIV- uninfected controls (BMI: 23.6 ± 0.4 vs 26.8 ± 1.5 vs 28.7 ± 0.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively, p < 0.001). The average amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was similar in all three groups (p = 0.26), but after adjustment for BMI, VAT was higher in the LIPO+ group (169 ± 10 cm<sup>2</sup>) compared to the LIPO- men (129 ± 12 cm<sup>2</sup>, p = 0.03) and the HIV-uninfected group (133 ± 11 cm<sup>2</sup>, p = 0.07). Subcutaneous adipose tissue (thigh, abdomen) and total extremity fat were less in the HIV-infected men (LIPO+ and LIPO-) than in the HIV-uninfected men. Over an average of 6 years of follow-up, waist circumference increased at a faster rate in LIPO+ group, compared to the LIPO- men (0.51 cm/year vs 0.08 cm/year, p = 0.02) and HIV-uninfected control men (0.21 cm/year, p = 0.06). The annual changes in hip and thigh circumferences were similar in all three groups</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Subcutaneous lipoatrophy was observed in HIV-infected patients, even those without clinical evidence of lipodystrophy, compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected men. Despite markedly lower BMI, HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy had a similar amount of VAT as HIV-uninfected men and tended to have more rapid increases in waist circumference over 6 years of follow-up. These longitudinal increases in waist circumference may contribute to the development of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy.</p

    A Controlled Investigation of Optimal Internal Medicine Ward Team Structure at a Teaching Hospital

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    BACKGROUND: The optimal structure of an internal medicine ward team at a teaching hospital is unknown. We hypothesized that increasing the ratio of attendings to housestaff would result in an enhanced perceived educational experience for residents. METHODS: Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (HUMC) is a tertiary care, public hospital in Los Angeles County. Standard ward teams at HUMC, with a housestaff∶attending ratio of 5:1, were split by adding one attending and then dividing the teams into two experimental teams containing ratios of 3:1 and 2:1. Web-based Likert satisfaction surveys were completed by housestaff and attending physicians on the experimental and control teams at the end of their rotations, and objective healthcare outcomes (e.g., length of stay, hospital readmission, mortality) were compared. RESULTS: Nine hundred and ninety patients were admitted to the standard control teams and 184 were admitted to the experimental teams (81 to the one-intern team and 103 to the two-intern team). Patients admitted to the experimental and control teams had similar age and disease severity. Residents and attending physicians consistently indicated that the quality of the educational experience, time spent teaching, time devoted to patient care, and quality of life were superior on the experimental teams. Objective healthcare outcomes did not differ between experimental and control teams. CONCLUSIONS: Altering internal medicine ward team structure to reduce the ratio of housestaff to attending physicians improved the perceived educational experience without altering objective healthcare outcomes

    Triple-Nucleoside Regimens versus Efavirenz-Containing Regimens for the Initial Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

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    BACKGROUND Regimens containing three nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors offer an alternative to regimens containing nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors for the initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but data from direct comparisons are limited. METHODS This randomized, double-blind study involved three antiretroviral regimens for the initial treatment of subjects infected with HIV-1: zidovudine-lamivudine-abacavir, zidovudine-lamivudine plus efavirenz, and zidovudine-lamivudine-abacavir plus efavirenz. RESULTS We enrolled a total of 1147 subjects with a mean baseline HIV-1 RNA level of 4.85 log10(71,434) copies per milliliter and a mean CD4 cell count of 238 per cubic millimeter were enrolled. A scheduled review by the data and safety monitoring board with the use ofprespecified stopping boundaries led to a recommendation to stop the triple-nucleoside group and to present the results in the triple-nucleoside group in comparison with pooled data from the efavirenz groups. After a median follow-up of 32 weeks, 82 of 382 subjects in the triple-nucleoside group (21 percent) and 85 of 765 ofthose in the combined efavirenz groups (11 percent) had virologic failure; the time to virologic failure was significantly shorter in the triple-nucleoside group (P<0.001). This difference was observed regardless of the pretreatment HIV-1 RNA stratum (at least 100,000 copies per milliliter or below this level; P≤0.001 for both comparisons). Changes in the CD4 cell count and the incidence of grade 3 or grade 4 adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS In this trial of the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection, the triple-nucleoside combination ofabacavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine was virologically inferior to a regimen containing efavirenz and two or three nucleosides

    Factors affecting glomerular filtration rate, as measured by iohexol disappearance, in men with or at risk for HIV infection

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    Objective: Formulae used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) underestimate higher GFRs and have not been well-studied in HIV-infected (HIV(+)) people; we evaluated the relationships of HIV infection and known or potential risk factors for kidney disease with directly measured GFR and the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design: Cross-sectional measurement of iohexol-based GFR (iGFR) in HIV(+) men (n = 455) receiving antiretroviral therapy, and HIV-uninfected (HIV(-)) men (n = 258) in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods: iGFR was calculated from disappearance of infused iohexol from plasma. Determinants of GFR and the presence of CKD were compared using iGFR and GFR estimated by the CKD-Epi equation (eGFR). Results: Median iGFR was higher among HIV(+) than HIV(-) men (109 vs. 106 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, p = .046), and was 7 ml/min higher than median eGFR. Mean iGFR was lower in men who were older, had chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or had a history of AIDS. Low iGFR (≤90 ml/min/1.73 m2) was associated with these factors and with black race. Other than age, factors associated with low iGFR were not observed with low eGFR. CKD was more common in HIV(+) than HIV(-) men; predictors of CKD were similar using iGFR and eGFR. Conclusions: iGFR was higher than eGFR in this population of HIV-infected and -uninfected men who have sex with men. Presence of CKD was predicted equally well by iGFR and eGFR, but associations of chronic HCV infection and history of clinically-defined AIDS with mildly decreased GFR were seen only with iGFR. © 2014 Margolick et al