1,224 research outputs found

    When driving becomes risky : micro-scale variants of the lane-changing maneuver in highway traffic

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    Objective: Vehicular lane-changing is one of the riskiest driving maneuvers. Since vehicular automation is quickly becoming a reality, it is crucial to be able to identify when such a maneuver can turn into a risky situation. Recently, it has been shown that a qualitative approach: the Point Descriptor Precedence (PDP) representation, is able to do so. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether the PDP representation can detect hazardous micro movements during lane-changing maneuvers in a situation of structural congestion in the morning and/or evening.Method: The approach involves analyzing a large real-world traffic dataset using the PDP representation and adding safety distance points to distinguish subtle movement patterns.Results: Based on these subtleties, we label four out of seven and five out of nine lane-change maneuvers as risky during the selected peak and the off-peak traffic hours respectively.Conclusions: The results show that the approach can identify risky movement patterns in traffic. The PDP representation can be used to check whether certain adjustments (e.g., changing the maximum speed) have a significant impact on the number of dangerous behaviors, which is important for improving road safety. This approach has practical applications in penalizing traffic violations, improving traffic flow, and providing valuable information for policymakers and transport experts. It can also be used to train autonomous vehicles in risky driving situations

    From Traffic Congestion to Sustainable Mobility: A Case Study of Public Transport in Odesa, Ukraine

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    Consistent and reliable information on passenger traffic is considered crucial for the efficient operation of the public transport (PT) network. The PT network is used to improve public services and thus attract more passengers. This study evaluated the passenger traffic in Odesa, Ukraine, due to the inefficient urban transport system. The main aim of this study was to make PT better by examining passenger distribution on traffic routes and specifying characteristics of PT travel influencing individual satisfaction. The metric-tabular method was used to collect data and examine the number of incoming and outgoing passengers at each bus stop. The results of the passenger and PT analysis provide valuable recommendations for optimizing future routes. It is beneficial for transport companies to implement such recommendations so that inefficient transport on the route can be reduced by either reforming the route network or choosing the optimal number of buses. According to the findings of this study, understanding PT services is the most important determinant of PT adoption. The main implications of the findings are of particular interest to policymakers who develop policies in the field of passenger transport and also to transport scientists and students

    Are adaptation strategies to climate change gender neutral? Lessons learned from paddy farmers in Northern Iran

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    peer reviewedAdopting a qualitative approach, this study performs a gender analysis of the climate change effects on rice farmers’ adaptation strategies (AS) in Mazandaran Province (northern Iran) based on the sustainable livelihood approach. For this purpose, 36 male and female heads of households in Arab Mahalla and Qajar Khel villages and 10 heads of households in Kiasar village (in Mazandaran Province) were selected and studied through theoretical and purposeful sampling methods of Corbin and Strauss. These villages have the highest number of female household heads and have been severely affected by the climate crisis in recent years. For the male-headed households (n = 23), the most important climate crisis was drought (f=16), and for the female-headed households (n = 23), drought, cold, and early off-season frost and monsoon storms were the most important (f=13). The results also indicated that in climatic crises, human (X̅=12.35) and social (X̅=13) capital from the women's perspective and financial (X̅=12.5) and physical (X̅=13) capital from the men's perspective had the highest vulnerability percentages whereas natural capital was equally affected from both the men's and women's viewpoints. One of the innovative aspects of this study is the gender analysis of the impact of climate change on the AS of sustainable livelihood framework based on a qualitative approach. This study recommends that beyond increasing the diversity of living amid climate change, deliberate climate change efforts should be directed at women and that fundamental gender discrimination such as prejudices and gender inequality should be eliminated

    Investigating the Nonlinear Relationship Between Car Dependency and the Built Environment

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    Car-dominated daily travel has caused many severe and urgent urban problems across the world, and such travel patterns have been found to be related to the built environment. However, few existing studies have uncovered the nonlinear relationship between the built environment and car dependency using a machine learning method, thus failing to provide policymakers with nuanced evidence-based guidance on reducing car dependency. Using data from Puget Sound regional household travel surveys, this study analyzes the complicated relationship between car dependency and the built environment using the gradient boost decision tree method. The results show that people living in high-density areas are less likely to rely on private cars than those living in low-density neighborhoods. Both threshold and nonlinear effects are observed in the relationships between the built environment and car dependency. Increasing road density promotes car usage when the road density is below 6 km/km2. However, the positive association between road density and car use is not observed in areas with high road density. Increasing pedestrian-oriented road density decreases the likelihood of using cars as the main mode. Such a negative effect is most effective when the pedestrian-oriented road density is over 14.5 km/km2. More diverse land use also discourages people's car use, probably because those areas are more likely to promote active modes. Destination accessibility has an overall negative effect and a significant threshold effect on car dependency. These findings can help urban planners formulate tailored land-use interventions to reduce car dependency.ISSN:2183-763

    Evolutions in undirected travel (satisfaction) during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    The COVID-19 pandemic illustrated that undirected travel (UT), or trips taken for their own sake, can partly compensate for a reduction in destination-based trips due to governmental regulations. Consequently, UT (in general, but particularly during the pandemic) may be especially satisfying and therefore important to subjective well-being. However, through the course of the pandemic, changes in UT were anticipated as individuals adapted to a 'new normal'. This research - con-ducted in Flanders, Belgium - first investigates whether the characteristics of and satisfaction with UT persisted after one year into the pandemic (April 2020 to May 2021) using longitudinal panel data from two waves (n = 332). Results of paired sample t-tests indicate that UT satisfaction increased though duration of trips decreased, and results of the Sign test indicate that the fre-quency of UT generally decreased. Second, this research investigates characteristics of individuals with different UT behavior. Six profiles of UT behavior were identified based on starting or stopping UT, increasing or decreasing UT, maintaining UT frequency, or not participating in UT. Chi2 tests identified differences among profiles based on wave 1 UT frequency, most recent trip mode, socio-demographic, and household characteristics. Results indicate that participation in UT might motivate future UT, one to three UT trips per week is a maintainable frequency, UT might be important to those with smaller living spaces and those living with children or other adults, and suggest that attention should be paid to mobility equity, including how and for whom systems are planned. These findings are important to understanding the effects of long-term governmental regulations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic on travel behavior, and how investigating UT might help to challenge and reimagine traditional mobility systems post-pandemic

    Investigating the Nonlinear Relationship Between Car Dependency and the Built Environment

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    Car-dominated daily travel has caused many severe and urgent urban problems across the world, and such travel patterns have been found to be related to the built environment. However, few existing studies have uncovered the nonlinear relationship between the built environment and car dependency using a machine learning method, thus failing to provide policymakers with nuanced evidence-based guidance on reducing car dependency. Using data from Puget Sound regional household travel surveys, this study analyzes the complicated relationship between car dependency and the built environment using the gradient boost decision tree method. The results show that people living in high-density areas are less likely to rely on private cars than those living in low-density neighborhoods. Both threshold and nonlinear effects are observed in the relationships between the built environment and car dependency. Increasing road density promotes car usage when the road density is below 6 km/km2. However, the positive association between road density and car use is not observed in areas with high road density. Increasing pedestrian-oriented road density decreases the likelihood of using cars as the main mode. Such a negative effect is most effective when the pedestrian-oriented road density is over 14.5 km/km2. More diverse land use also discourages people’s car use, probably because those areas are more likely to promote active modes. Destination accessibility has an overall negative effect and a significant threshold effect on car dependency. These findings can help urban planners formulate tailored land-use interventions to reduce car dependency

    Comparison of station-based and free-floating bikeshare systems as feeder modes to the metro

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    Shared micro-mobility has been booming in recent years and the coordinated development of different modes can play an important role in improving the connectivity of the urban public transport system. While most previous studies have analysed the feeder trips of individual modes, few comparative studies of different modes have been conducted. To this end, we compared the spatial and temporal patterns in the integrated use of station-based bikeshare systems (SBBS) and free-floating bikeshare systems (FFBS) with the metro. This study used the smart card data of SBBS and transaction data of FFBS from 1st to 30th September 2017, in Nanjing, China. Generalised additive mixed models were applied to examine the nuanced effects of the built environment, weather factors and temporal variables, while taking into account spatio-temporal autocorrelations. The results show that SBBS are used more as a feeder mode at downtown metro stations and exhibit pronounced rush hour patterns. FFBS-metro integrated use is spatially more dispersed at peripheral stations and covers wider periods of the day. This suggests that SBBS use is more demand-driven, while FFBS use is more efficiency-driven. The built environment shows different forms of effects: variables that have a linear relationship with SBBS-metro integrated use show non-linear effects in the FFBS model, and vice versa. Certain variables also present variations in their non-linear patterns. For instance, the plateau effect of road density for SBBS occurs at 10.5 km/km2, while the optimal employment density for FFBS is 12,000 jobs/km2. Inadequate or excessive development can lead to a decrease in integration efficiency. These findings can inform how service providers optimise fleet reallocation and how transport planners tailor spatial interventions that promote the integration of bikeshare and the metro system
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