405 research outputs found

    Physical Properties of a Set of Sandstones, III: the Effects Of Fine Grained Pore Filling Material on Compressional Wave Velocity

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    We have used aspect ratio modeling to explain the measured compressional wave velocities of twenty different dry sandstone samples with varying clay contents at a single confining pressure of 0.5 kbar. Velocities of the sandstones range between 3.1 km/sec and 5.7 km/sec. Measured porosities are between 6% and 33%, clay contents between 2% and 30%. Pores were described using three simple type classifications. The pore type distributions of the samples were quantified by point counting polished impregnated thin sections using a scanning electron microscope. A representative aspect-ratio was assigned to each of the three categories of pore type. Velocities were modeled using these aspect ratios weighted by the observed distribution of the porosity types. Agreement between theoretical and measured velocities is generally within 10%. The modeling suggests that the effects of clays in sandstone pores is to reduce the sample porosity without reducing the non-framework (void + clay) volume. Thus, for a given porosity, clay rich samples contain greater non-framework volume, which in turn lowers velocity. The model derived from the dry measurements can be used to successfully approximate empirical relationships for saturated samples of velocity-porosity-clay content taken from the literature.Schlumberger-Doll Research CenterSchlumberger Foundation. Post-Doctoral Fellowshi

    Thermoregulatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses during 88 min of full-body ice immersion - A case study.

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    Exposure to extreme cold environments is potentially life-threatening. However, the world record holder of full-body ice immersion has repeatedly demonstrated an extraordinary tolerance to extreme cold. We aimed to explore thermoregulatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses during 88 min of full-body ice immersion. We continuously measured gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi ), skin temperature (Tskin), blood pressure, and heart rate (HR). Oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured at rest, and after 45 and 88 min of ice immersion, in order to calculate the metabolic heat production. Tskin dropped significantly (28-34°C to 4-15°C) and VO2 doubled (5.7-11.3 ml kg-1  min-1 ), whereas Tgi (37.6°C), HR (72 bpm), and mean arterial pressure (106 mmHg) remained stable during the first 30 min of cold exposure. During the remaining of the trial, Tskin and VO2 remained stable, while Tgi gradually declined to 37.0°C and HR and mean arterial blood pressure increased to maximum values of 101 bpm and 115 mmHg, respectively. Metabolic heat production in rest was 169 W and increased to 321 W and 314 W after 45 and 80 min of ice immersion. Eighty-eight minutes of full-body ice immersion resulted in minor changes of Tgi and cardiovascular responses, while Tskin and VO2 changed markedly. These findings may suggest that our participant can optimize his thermoregulatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to challenge extreme cold exposure

    The cohesin ring uses its hinge to organize DNA using non-topological as well as topological mechanisms

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    As predicted by the notion that sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by entrapment of sister DNAs inside cohesin rings, there is perfect correlation between co-entrapment of circular minichromosomes and sister chromatid cohesion. In most cells where cohesin loads without conferring cohesion, it does so by entrapment of individual DNAs. However, cohesin with a hinge domain whose positively charged lumen is neutralized loads and moves along chromatin despite failing to entrap DNAs. Thus, cohesin engages chromatin in non-topological, as well as topological, manners. Since hinge mutations, but not Smc-kleisin fusions, abolish entrapment, DNAs may enter cohesin rings through hinge opening. Mutation of three highly conserved lysine residues inside the Smc1 moiety of Smc1/3 hinges abolishes all loading without affecting cohesin’s recruitment to CEN loading sites or its ability to hydrolyze ATP. We suggest that loading and translocation are mediated by conformational changes in cohesin’s hinge driven by cycles of ATP hydrolysis

    Dr. Zompo: an online data repository for Zostera marina and Posidonia oceanica ESTs

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    As ecosystem engineers, seagrasses are angiosperms of paramount ecological importance in shallow shoreline habitats around the globe. Furthermore, the ancestors of independent seagrass lineages have secondarily returned into the sea in separate, independent evolutionary events. Thus, understanding the molecular adaptation of this clade not only makes significant contributions to the field of ecology, but also to principles of parallel evolution as well. With the use of Dr. Zompo, the first interactive seagrass sequence database presented here, new insights into the molecular adaptation of marine environments can be inferred. The database is based on a total of 14 597 ESTs obtained from two seagrass species, Zostera marina and Posidonia oceanica, which have been processed, assembled and comprehensively annotated. Dr. Zompo provides experimentalists with a broad foundation to build experiments and consider challenges associated with the investigation of this class of non-domesticated monocotyledon systems. Our database, based on the Ruby on Rails framework, is rich in features including the retrieval of experimentally determined heat-responsive transcripts, mining for molecular markers (SSRs and SNPs), and weighted key word searches that allow access to annotation gathered on several levels including Pfam domains, GeneOntology and KEGG pathways. Well established plant genome sites such as The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) and the Rice Genome Annotation Project are interfaced by Dr. Zompo. With this project, we have initialized a valuable resource for plant biologists in general and the seagrass community in particular. The database is expected to grow together with more data to come in the near future, particularly with the recent initiation of the Zostera genome sequencing project