135 research outputs found

    PET-CT-guided interventions in the management of FDG-positive lesions in patients suffering from solid malignancies: initial experiences

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    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has gained widespread acceptance as a staging investigation in the diagnostic workup of malignant tumours and may be used to visualize metabolic changes before the evolution of morphological changes. To make histology of PET findings without distinctive structural changes available for treatment decisions, we developed a protocol for multimodal image-guided interventions using an integrated PET-CT machine. We report our first experience in 12 patients admitted for staging and restaging of breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, and osteosarcoma. Patients were repositioned according to the findings in PET-CT and intervention was planned based on a subsequent single-bed PET-CT acquisition of the region concerned. The needle was introduced under CT guidance in a step-by-step technique and correct needle position in the centre of the FDG avid lesion was assured by repetition of a single-bed PET-CT acquisition before sampling. The metabolically active part of lesions was accurately targeted in all patients and representative samples were obtained in 92%. No major adverse effects occurred. We conclude that PET-CT guidance for interventions is feasible and may be promising to optimize the diagnostic yield of CT-guided interventions and to make metabolically active lesions without morphological correlate accessible to percutaneous intervention

    PET/CT-guided biopsies of metabolically active bone lesions: applications and clinical impact

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    Purpose: In a minority of cases a definite diagnosis and stage grouping in cancer patients is not possible based on the imaging information of PET/CT. We report our experience with percutaneous PET/CT-guided bone biopsies to histologically verify the aetiology of hypermetabolic bone lesions. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 20 consecutive patients who underwent multimodal image-guided bone biopsies using a dedicated PET/CT system in a step-by-step technique. Technical and clinical success rates of PET/CT-guided biopsies were evaluated. Questionnaires were sent to the referring physicians to assess the impact of biopsies on patient management and to check the clinical need for PET/CT-guided biopsies. Results: Clinical indications for biopsy were to histologically verify the aetiology of metabolically active bone lesions without a morphological correlate confirming the suspicion of metastases in 15 patients, to determine the origin of suspected metastases in 3 patients and to evaluate the appropriateness of targeted therapy options in 2 patients. Biopsies were technically successful in all patients. In 19 of 20 patients a definite histological diagnosis was possible. No complications or adverse effects occurred. The result of PET/CT-guided bone biopsies determined a change of the planned treatment in overall 56% of patients, with intramodality changes, e.g. chemotherapy with palliative instead of curative intent, and intermodality changes, e.g. systemic therapy instead of surgery, in 22 and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: PET/CT-guided bone biopsies are a promising alternative to conventional techniques to make metabolically active bone lesions—especially without a distinctive morphological correlate—accessible for histological verification. PET/CT-guided biopsies had a major clinical impact in patients who otherwise cannot be reliably stage grouped at the time of treatment decision

    The Automated Breast Volume Scanner (ABVS): initial experiences in lesion detection compared with conventional handheld B-mode ultrasound: a pilot study of 50 cases

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    The idea of an automated whole breast ultrasound was developed three decades ago. We present our initial experiences with the latest technical advance in this technique, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) ACUSON S2000ℱ. Volume data sets were collected from 50 patients and a database containing 23 women with no detectable lesions in conventional ultrasound (BI-RADSÂź-US 1), 13 women with clearly benign lesions (BI-RADSÂź-US 2), and 14 women with known breast cancer (BI-RADSÂź-US 5) was created. An independent examiner evaluated the ABVS data on a separate workstation without any prior knowledge of the patients’ histories. The diagnostic accuracy for the experimental ABVS was 66.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.9–79.1). The independent examiner detected all breast cancers in the volume data resulting in a calculated sensitivity of 100% in the described setting (95% CI: 73.2%–100%). After the ABVS examination, there were a high number of requests for second-look ultrasounds in 47% (95% CI: 30.9–63.5) of the healthy women (with either a clearly benign lesion or no breast lesions at all in conventional handheld ultrasound). Therefore, the specificity remained at 52.8% (95% CI: 35.7–69.2). When comparing the concordance of the ABVS with the gold standard (conventional handheld ultrasound), Cohen’s Kappa value as an estimation of the inter-rater reliability was Îș = 0.37, indicating fair agreement. In conclusion, the ABVS must still be regarded as an experimental technique for breast ultrasound, which definitely needs to undergo further evaluation studies

    Comparison of vancomycin and linezolid in patients with peripheral vascular disease and/or diabetes in an observational European study of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections due to methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>

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    AbstractSuboptimal antibiotic penetration into soft tissues can occur in patients with poor circulation due to peripheral vascular disease (PVD) or diabetes. We conducted a real-world analysis of antibiotic treatment, hospital resource use and clinical outcomes in patients with PVD and/or diabetes receiving linezolid or vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (MRSA cSSTIs) across Europe. This subgroup analysis evaluated data obtained from a retrospective, observational medical chart review study that captured patient data from 12 European countries. Data were obtained from the medical records of patients ≄ 18 years of age, hospitalized with an MRSA cSSTI between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 and discharged alive by 31 July 2011. Hospital length of stay and length of treatment were compared between the treatment groups using inverse probability of treatment weights to adjust for clinical and demographic differences. A total of 485 patients had PVD or diabetes and received treatment with either vancomycin (n = 258) or linezolid (n = 227). After adjustment, patients treated with linezolid compared with vancomycin respectively had significantly shorter hospital stays (17.9 ± 13.6 vs. 22.6 ± 13.6 days; p < 0.001) and treatment durations (12.9 ± 7.9 vs. 16.4 ± 8.3 days; p < 0.001). The proportions of patients prescribed oral, MRSA-active antibiotics at discharge were 43.2% and 12.4% of patients in the linezolid and vancomycin groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The reduction in resource use may result in lower hospital costs for patients with PVD and/or diabetes and MRSA cSSTIs if treated with linezolid compared with vancomycin

    Efficacies of the new Paclitaxel-eluting Coroflex Pleaseℱ Stent in percutaneous coronary intervention; comparison of efficacy between Coroflex Pleaseℱ and Taxusℱ (ECO-PLEASANT) trial: study rationale and design

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Previous randomized trials have showed the superiority of Paclitaxel-eluting stent over bare metal stent in angiographic and clinical outcomes. Coroflex Pleaseℱ stent is a newly developed drug eluting stent using the Coroflexℱ stent platform combined with the drug paclitaxel contained in a polymer coating. PECOPS I trial, one-arm observational study, showed that the clinical and angiographic outcomes of Coroflex Pleaseℱ stent were within the range of those of Taxus, the 1<sup>st </sup>generation paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES). However, there have been no studies directly comparing the Coroflex Pleaseℱ stent with the Taxus Liberteℱ stent that is the newest version of Taxus. Therefore, prospective, randomized trial is required to demonstrate the non-inferiority of Coroflex Pleaseℱ stent compared with Taxus Liberteℱ stent in a head-to-head manner.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>In the comparison of Efficacy between COroflex PLEASeℱ ANd Taxusℱ stent(ECO-PLEASANT) trial, approximately 900 patients are being prospectively and randomly assigned to the either type of Coroflex Pleaseℱ stent and Taxus Liberteℱ stent via web-based randomization. The primary endpoint is clinically driven target vessel revascularization at 9 months. The secondary endpoints include major cardiac adverse events, target vessel failure, stent thrombosis and angiographic efficacy endpoints.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>The ECO-PLEASANT trial is the study not yet performed to directly compare the efficacy and safety of the Coroflex Pleaseℱ versus Taxus Liberteℱ stent. On the basis of this trial, we will be able to find out whether the Coroflex Pleaseℱ stent is non-inferior to Taxus Liberteℱ stent or not.</p> <p>Trial registration</p> <p>ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00699543.</p

    Fabrication and in vitro deployment of a laser-activated shape memory polymer vascular stent

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Vascular stents are small tubular scaffolds used in the treatment of arterial stenosis (narrowing of the vessel). Most vascular stents are metallic and are deployed either by balloon expansion or by self-expansion. A shape memory polymer (SMP) stent may enhance flexibility, compliance, and drug elution compared to its current metallic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to describe the fabrication of a laser-activated SMP stent and demonstrate photothermal expansion of the stent in an <it>in vitro </it>artery model.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A novel SMP stent was fabricated from thermoplastic polyurethane. A solid SMP tube formed by dip coating a stainless steel pin was laser-etched to create the mesh pattern of the finished stent. The stent was crimped over a fiber-optic cylindrical light diffuser coupled to an infrared diode laser. Photothermal actuation of the stent was performed in a water-filled mock artery.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>At a physiological flow rate, the stent did not fully expand at the maximum laser power (8.6 W) due to convective cooling. However, under zero flow, simulating the technique of endovascular flow occlusion, complete laser actuation was achieved in the mock artery at a laser power of ~8 W.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We have shown the design and fabrication of an SMP stent and a means of light delivery for photothermal actuation. Though further studies are required to optimize the device and assess thermal tissue damage, photothermal actuation of the SMP stent was demonstrated.</p

    Management of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections

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    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) has become one of the most important contemporary pathogens, especially in endemic areas

    <i>In Vivo</i> Efficacy of Human Simulated Regimens of Carbapenems and Comparator Agents against NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

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    Doripenem and ertapenem have demonstrated efficacy against several NDM-1- producing isolates in vivo, despite having high MICs. In this study, we sought to further characterize the efficacy profiles of humanized regimens of standard (500 mg given every 8 h) and high-dose, prolonged infusion of doripenem (2 g given every 8 h, 4-h infusion) and 1 g of ertapenem given intravenously every 24 h and the comparator regimens of ceftazidime at 2 g given every 8 h (2-h infusion), levofloxacin at 500 mg every 24 h, and aztreonam at 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) against a wider range of isolates in a murine thigh infection model. An isogenic wild-type strain and NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and eight clinical NDM-1-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested in immunocompetent- and neutropenic-mouse models. The wild-type strain was susceptible to all of the agents, while the isogenic NDM-1-producing strain was resistant to ceftazidime, doripenem, and ertapenem. Clinical NDM-1-producing strains were resistant to nearly all five of the agents (two were susceptible to levofloxacin). In immunocompetent mice, all of the agents produced ≄1-log₁₀ CFU reductions of the isogenic wild-type and NDM-1- producing strains after 24 h. Minimal efficacy of ceftazidime, aztreonam, and levofloxacin against the clinical NDM-1-producing strains was observed. However, despite in vitro resistance, ≄1-log₁₀ CFU reductions of six of eight clinical strains were achieved with high-dose, prolonged infusion of doripenem and ertapenem. Slight enhancements of doripenem activity over the standard doses were obtained with high-dose, prolonged infusion for three of the four isolates tested. Similar efficacy observations were noted in neutropenic mice. These data suggest that carbapenems are a viable treatment option for infections caused by NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Efficacy of Humanized Carbapenem and Ceftazidime Regimens against Enterobacteriaceae Producing OXA-48 Carbapenemase in a Murine Infection Model

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    Enterobacteriaceae producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase are emerging worldwide, leaving few treatment options. Efficacy has been demonstrated in vivo with ceftazidime against a ceftazidime-susceptible OXA-48 isolate but not with imipenem despite maintaining susceptibility. The relationship between phenotype and in vivo efficacy was assessed for OXA-48 producers using humanized regimens of 2 g doripenem every 8 h (q8h; 4 h infusion), 1 g ertapenem q24h, 2 g ceftazidime q8h (2 h inf), and 500 mg levofloxacin q24h. Each regimen was evaluated over 24 h against an isogenic pair (wild-type and OXA-48 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains) and six clinical OXA-48 isolates with and without other extended-spectrum ÎČ-lactamases in immunocompetent and neutropenic murine thigh infection models. Efficacy was determined using the change in bacterial density versus 24-h growth controls in immunocompetent studies and 0-h controls in neutropenic studies. Bacterial reductions of ≄1 log CFU were observed with all agents for the wild-type strain. Consistent with low MICs, ceftazidime and levofloxacin exhibited efficacy against the isogenic OXA-48 strain, whereas doripenem did not, despite having a susceptible MIC; no activity was observed with ertapenem, consistent with a resistant MIC. Similar trends were observed for the clinical isolates evaluated. Ceftazidime, levofloxacin, and ertapenem efficacy against isogenic and clinical OXA-48-producing strains correlated well with phenotypic profiles and pharmacodynamic targets, whereas efficacy with doripenem was variable over the MIC range studied. These data suggest that carbapenems may not be a reliable treatment for treating OXA-48 producers and add to previous observations with KPC and NDM-1 suggesting that genotype may better predict activity of the carbapenems than the phenotypic profile
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