97 research outputs found

    Helmet Use Among Personal Bicycle Riders and Bike Share Users in Vancouver, BC

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    Introduction: Public bike share users have low prevalence of helmet use, and few public bike share systems make helmets available. In summer 2016, a public bike share system launched in Vancouver, BC. Each bicycle is equipped with a free helmet, in response to BC\u27s all-ages compulsory helmet law. This study assessed the prevalence of helmet use among adult cyclists on personal and public bicycles in Vancouver. Methods: A survey of adult cyclists (age estimated at ≥16 years) at five screen line sites and at 15 public bike share docking stations was conducted. Observations were made on fair weather days in 2016. Observers recorded the gender of the rider, bicycle type, helmet use, and helmet type. In 2016, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of helmet use by personal and trip characteristics. Results: Observers conducted 87.5 hours of observation and recorded 11,101 cyclists. They observed 10,704 (96.4%) cyclists on personal bicycles and 397 (3.6%) public bicycle users. Overall, the prevalence of helmet use was 78.1% (n=8,670/11,101), higher for personal bicycle riders (78.6%, n=8,416/10,704) than bike share users (64.0%, n=254/397). Helmet use was associated with gender, bicycle facility type, and day and time of travel. Conclusions: In a city with all-ages helmet legislation, helmet use is high but differs across infrastructure types and cyclist characteristics. Bike share systems could increase helmet use by providing complementary helmets coupled with supportive measures

    Where to put bike counters? Stratifying bicycling patterns in the city using crowdsourced data

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    This work was supported by a grant from the Public Health Agency of Canada to BikeMaps.org.When designing bicycle count programs, it can be difficult to know where to locate counters to generate a representative sample of bicycling ridership. Crowdsourced data on ridership has been shown to represent patterns of temporal ridership in dense urban areas. Here we use crowdsourced data and machine learning to categorize street segments into classes of temporal patterns of ridership. We used continuous signal processing to group 3,880 street segments in Ottawa, Ontario into six classes of temporal ridership that varied based on overall volume and daily patterns (commute vs non-commute). Transportation practitioners can use this data to strategically place counters across these strata to efficiently capture bicycling ridership counts that better represent the entire city.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Destinations That Older Adults Experience Within Their GPS Activity Spaces: Relation to Objectively Measured Physical Activity

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    Identifying the relevant geography is an ongoing obstacle to effectively evaluate the influence of neighborhood built environment on physical activity. We characterized density and diversity of destinations that 77 older adults experienced within individually representative GPS activity spaces and traditional residential buffers and assessed their associations with accelerometry-measured physical activity. Traditional residential buffers had lower destination density and diversity than activity spaces. Activity spaces based only on pedestrian and bicycling trips had higher destination densities than all-mode activity spaces. Regardless of neighborhood definition, adjusted associations between destinations and physical activity generally failed to reach statistical significance. However, within pedestrian and bicycling-based activity spaces each additional destination type was associated with 243.3 more steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0, 450.7). Traditional buffers may not accurately portray the geographic space or neighborhood resources experienced by older adults. Pedestrian and bicycling activity spaces elucidate the importance of destinations for facilitating active transportation

    Evaluation of the Impact of a Public Bicycle Share Program on Population Bicycling in Vancouver, BC

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    Public bicycle share programs have been implemented in cities around the world to encourage bicycling. However, there are limited evaluations of the impact of these programs on bicycling at the population level. This study examined the impact of a public bicycle share program on bicycling amongst residents of Vancouver, BC. Using an online panel, we surveyed a population-based sample of Vancouver residents three times: prior to the implementation of the public bicycle share program (T0, October 2015, n=1111); in the early phase of implementation (T1, October 2016, n=995); and one-year post implementation (T2, October 2017, n=966). We used difference in differences estimation to assess whether there was an increase in bicycling amongst those living and/or working in close proximity (≤500 m) to Vancouver\u27s Mobi by Shaw Go public bicycle share program, compared to those living and working outside this area. Results suggest that only living or only working inside the bicycle share service area was not associated with increases in bicycling at T1 or T2 relative to those outside the service area. Both living and working inside the bicycle share service area was associated with increases in bicycling at T1 (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.80), however not at T2 (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.67, 2.83). These findings indicate that the implementation of a public bicycle share program may have a greater effect on bicycling for residents who both live and work within the service area, although this effect may not be sustained over time.&nbsp

    Impacts of Bicycle Infrastructure in Mid-Sized Cities (IBIMS): protocol for a natural experiment study in three Canadian cities

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    Introduction: Bicycling is promoted as a transportation and population health strategy globally. Yet bicycling has low uptake in North America (1%–2% of trips) compared with European bicycling cities (15%–40% of trips) and shows marked sex and age trends. Safety concerns due to collisions with motor vehicles are primary barriers.  To attract the broader population to bicycling, many cities are making investments in bicycle infrastructure. These interventions hold promise for improving population health given the potential for increased physical activity and improved safety, but such outcomes have been largely unstudied. In 2016, the City of Victoria, Canada, committed to build a connected network of infrastructure that separates bicycles from motor vehicles, designed to attract people of ‘all ages and abilities’ to bicycling.  This natural experiment study examines the impacts of the City of Victoria’s investment in a bicycle network on active travel and safety outcomes. The specific objectives are to (1) estimate changes in active travel, perceived safety and bicycle safety incidents; (2) analyse spatial inequities in access to bicycle infrastructure and safety incidents; and (3) assess health-related economic benefits.  Methods and analysis: The study is in three Canadian cities (intervention: Victoria; comparison: Kelowna, Halifax). We will administer population-based surveys in 2016, 2018 and 2021 (1000 people/city). The primary outcome is the proportion of people reporting bicycling. Secondary outcomes are perceived safety and bicycle safety incidents. Spatial analyses will compare the distribution of bicycle infrastructure and bicycle safety incidents across neighbourhoods and across time. We will also calculate the economic benefits of bicycling using WHO’s Health Economic Assessment Tool.  Ethics and dissemination: This study received approval from the Simon Fraser University Office of Research Ethics (study no. 2016s0401). Findings will be disseminated via a website, presentations to stakeholders, at academic conferences and through peer-reviewed journal article

    Cycling Frequency Changes During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada’s Most Populous Urban Regions

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    We surveyed 2,066 residents of Toronto and Montréal and Vancouver-area municipalities to identify changes in self-reported cycling frequency from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results indicate that 5% of people who were infrequent cyclists (less than once a week) became frequent cyclists (at least once a week) over the pandemic; these were more likely to be men, those aged 30-59 years, those living in more urban neighbourhoods, and those who felt that new cycling facilities provided better access to their usual and/or desired locations via active transportation

    An Economic Analysis of the Health-Related Benefits Associated With Bicycle Infrastructure Investment in Three Canadian Cities

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    Objectives Decision-makers are increasingly requesting economic analyses on transportation-related interventions, but health is often excluded as a determinant of value. We assess the health-related economic impact of bicycle infrastructure investments in three Canadian cities (Victoria, Kelowna and Halifax), comparing a baseline reference year (2016) with the future infrastructure build-out (2020). Methods The World Health Organization’s Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT; version 4.2) was used to quantify the economic value of health benefits associated with increased bicycling, using a 10-year time horizon. Outputs comprise premature deaths prevented, carbon emissions avoided, and a benefit:cost ratio. For 2016–2020, we derived cost estimates for bicycle infrastructure investments (including verification from city partners) and modelled three scenarios for changes in bicycling mode share: ‘no change’, ‘moderate change’ (a 2% increase), and ‘major change’ (a 5% increase). Further sensitivity analyses (32 per city) examined how robust the moderate scenario findings were to variation in parameter inputs. Results Planned bicycle infrastructure investments between 2016 and 2020 ranged from $28–69 million (CAD; in 2016 prices). The moderate scenario benefit:cost ratios were between 1.7:1 (Victoria) and 2.1:1 (Halifax), with the benefit estimate incorporating 9–18 premature deaths prevented and a reduction of 87–142 thousand tonnes of carbon over the 10-year time horizon. The major scenario benefit:cost ratios were between 3.9:1 (Victoria) and 4.9:1 (Halifax), with 19–43 premature deaths prevented and 209–349 thousand tonnes of carbon averted. Sensitivity analyses showed the ratio estimates to be sensitive to the time horizon, investment cost and value of a statistical life inputs. Conclusion Within the assessment framework permitted by HEAT, the dollar value of health-related benefits exceeded the cost of planned infrastructure investments in bicycling in the three study cities. Depending on the decision problem, complementary analyses may be required to address broader questions relevant to decision makers in the public sector

    Snow and Rain Modify Neighbourhood Walkability for Older Adults

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    RÉSUMÉ La littérature a documenté une relation positive entre la mobilité à l’extérieur chez les personnes âgées et les environnements bâtisables et marchables. Cependant, étonnamment, toute considération de la façon dont le temps modifie l’accessibilité piétonnière à travers les quartiers est absente. À Vancouver, au Canada, on a utilisé des données météorologiques archivées liées à des données recueillies auprès d’un échantillon d’aînés. On a constaté que, lorsqu’il neige, les quartiers où l’on dépend d’automobiles (comportant des blocs plus longs, moins d’intersections et une plus grande distance aux commodités) sont devenus inaccessibles. Même les adultes plus âgés qui vivaient dans les quartiers qui étaient très bien adaptés au traffic pietonnier marchait à 25 pour cent moins de destinations pendant la neige. Il est essentiel de tenir compte de l’impact des conditions météorologiques dans la relation entre la marchabilité des quartiers et la mobilité des personnes âgées

    Transportation Planning, Policy, and Electric Micro-Mobilities: A Knowledge Synthesis of Recent Publications

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    This SSHRC-funded (Grant #972-2020-1009) scoping review synthesizes existing research (2010-2021) related to both private and shared electric micro-mobilities (i.e. e-bikes, e-scooters, e-unicycles, e-skateboards). It considers themes such as: rider demographics, usage, and motivations; mobility justice; benefits of and barriers to EMM use; safety and injuries; modal shift among forms of transportation; rider satisfaction with mode choice; environmental impact; conflict and controversy; EMM pilot programs; and EMM integration, legislation, and policy recommendations. Aside from scholarship, media reports are also included, in order to speak to the environment in which the research takes place
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