3,266 research outputs found

    ATF3 upregulation in glia during Wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter

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    Background: Many changes in gene expression occur in distal stumps of injured nerves but the transcriptional control of these events is poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the transcription factors ATF3 and c-Jun by non-neuronal cells during Wallerian degeneration following injury to sciatic nerves, dorsal roots and optic nerves of rats and mice, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.Results: Following sciatic nerve injury-transection or transection and reanastomosis-ATF3 was strongly upregulated by endoneurial, but not perineurial cells, of the distal stumps of the nerves by 1 day post operation (dpo) and remained strongly expressed in the endoneurium at 30 dpo when axonal regeneration was prevented. Most ATF3+ cells were immunoreactive for the Schwann cell marker, S100. When the nerve was transected and reanastomosed, allowing regeneration of axons, most ATF3 expression had been downregulated by 30 dpo. ATF3 expression was weaker in the proximal stumps of the injured nerves than in the distal stumps and present in fewer cells at all times after injury. ATF3 was upregulated by endoneurial cells in the distal stumps of injured neonatal rat sciatic nerves, but more weakly than in adult animals. ATF3 expression in transected sciatic nerves of mice was similar to that in rats. Following dorsal root injury in adult rats, ATF3 was upregulated in the part of the root between the lesion and the spinal cord (containing Schwann cells), beginning at 1 dpo, but not in the dorsal root entry zone or in the degenerating dorsal column of the spinal cord. Following optic nerve crush in adult rats, ATF3 was found in some cells at the injury site and small numbers of cells within the optic nerve displayed weak immunoreactivity. The pattern of expression of c-Jun in all types of nerve injury was similar to that of ATF3.Conclusion: These findings raise the possibility that ATF3/c-Jun heterodimers may play a role in regulating changes in gene expression necessary for preparing the distal segments of injured peripheral nerves for axonal regeneration. The absence of the ATF3 and c-Jun from CNS glia during Wallerian degeneration may limit their ability to support regeneration

    Au/TiO2(110) interfacial reconstruction stability from ab initio

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    We determine the stability and properties of interfaces of low-index Au surfaces adhered to TiO2(110), using density functional theory energy density calculations. We consider Au(100) and Au(111) epitaxies on rutile TiO2(110) surface, as observed in experiments. For each epitaxy, we consider several different interfaces: Au(111)//TiO2(110) and Au(100)//TiO2(110), with and without bridging oxygen, Au(111) on 1x2 added-row TiO2(110) reconstruction, and Au(111) on a proposed 1x2 TiO reconstruction. The density functional theory energy density method computes the energy changes on each of the atoms while forming the interface, and evaluates the work of adhesion to determine the equilibrium interfacial structure.Comment: 20 pages, 11 figure

    Rigorous Probabilistic Analysis of Equilibrium Crystal Shapes

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    The rigorous microscopic theory of equilibrium crystal shapes has made enormous progress during the last decade. We review here the main results which have been obtained, both in two and higher dimensions. In particular, we describe how the phenomenological Wulff and Winterbottom constructions can be derived from the microscopic description provided by the equilibrium statistical mechanics of lattice gases. We focus on the main conceptual issues and describe the central ideas of the existing approaches.Comment: To appear in the March 2000 special issue of Journal of Mathematical Physics on Probabilistic Methods in Statistical Physic

    Growth, profits and technological choice: The case of the Lancashire cotton textile industry

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    Using Lancashire textile industry company case studies and financial records, mainly from the period just before the First World War, the processes of growth and decline are re-examined. These are considered by reference to the nature of Lancashire entrepreneurship and the impact on technological choice. Capital accumulation, associated wealth distributions and the character of Lancashire business organisation were sybiotically linked to the success of the industry before 1914. However, the legacy of that accumulation in later decades, chronic overcapacity, formed a barrier to reconstruction and enhanced the preciptious decline of a once great industry

    A practical approach to establishing a critical care outreach service: An expert panel research design

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    Background: For over two decades, nurse-led critical care outreach services have improved the recognition, response, and management of deteriorating patients in general hospital wards, yet variation in terms, design, implementation, and evaluation of such services continue. For those establishing a critical care outreach service, these factors make the literature difficult to interpret and translate to the real-world setting. Aim: The aim of this study was to provide a practical approach to establishing a critical care outreach service in the hospital setting. Method: An international expert panel of clinicians, managers, and academics with experience in implementing, developing, operationalising, educating, and evaluating critical care outreach services collaborated to synthesise evidence, experience, and clinical judgment to develop a practical approach for those establishing a critical care outreach service. A rapid review of the literature identified publications relevant to the study. A modified Delphi technique was used to achieve expert panel consensus particularly in areas where insufficient published literature or ambiguities existed. Findings: There were 502 publications sourced from the rapid review, of which 104 were relevant and reviewed. Using the modified Delphi technique, the expert panel identified five key components needed to establish a critical care outreach service: (i) approaches to service delivery, (ii) education and training, (iii) organisational engagement, (iv) clinical governance, and (v) monitoring and evaluation. Conclusion: An expert panel research design successfully synthesised evidence, experience, and clinical judgement to provide a practical approach for those establishing a critical care outreach service. This method of research will likely be valuable in other areas of practice where terms are used interchangeably, and the literature is diverse and lacking a single approach to practice

    Assessment of information resources for people with hypodontia

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    Aim: To assess the adequacy of patient information to support understanding and decision-making for people affected by hypodontia. Methods: 1) Questionnaire to understand the provision of patient information by dentists; 2) Systematic search to identify online open-access patient information; 3) Quality assessment of written patient information. Results: Questionnaire response rate was 49% (319/649); 91% examined and/or treated people with hypodontia. Most general dentists referred patients to specialist services without providing written hypodontia information. The majority of dental specialists provide patient leaflets but less than a third used web-resources. Only 19% of respondents felt current resources were fit-for-purpose. Thirty-one patient resources (18 leaflets and 13 online) were assessed against quality criteria. The aim of the resource was seldom explicit, the content was often incomplete and variation in readability scores indicated high levels of literacy were required. Discussion: Access to, and quality of, patient information for hypodontia is inadequate. Current resources are not sufficiently comprehensive to prepare young patients to engage in shared dental care decisions with their parents and/or dental professionals. Conclusion: There is a need for improved access to, and provision of, information about hypodontia if dental professionals want to meet best practice guidance and involve patients in shared decision-making
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