1,899 research outputs found

    Quantitative analysis of the impacts of Croatia's agricultural trade policy on the agri-food sector

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    Croatia recently signed several trade liberalisation agreements. The cornerstones of its trade policy are WTO membership, the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU and Croatia's application of membership as well as bilateral free trade agreements within the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. The objective of this paper is to quantify the impact of Croatia's agricultural trade policy on the agri-food sector. For the analysis, a partial equilibrium model based on 1999/2000 data is used. Trade between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Slovenia, the EU-15 and the rest of the world is modelled for 12 product groups. Three liberalisation scenarios are analysed for the years 2002 and 2005. The scenarios differ with regard to the tariff changes. In general, the model results indicate that reciprocal trade liberalisation is welfare improving for Croatia. The increase in consumer welfare is larger than the decline in farmers' profits and the loss of governmental tariff revenues. In conclusion, the continuation of trade liberalisation is to be recommended. However, trade policy alone will not solve the existing problems of the agri-food sector, and transitional compensation measures could be considered to avoid unacceptable hardship. The benefits of trade liberalisation are primarily to be seen in an improved access to international markets, which probably enables Croatian food processors to realise economies of scale. In addition, internationally binding commitments such as trade agreements are likely to foster the internal and international political credibility and reduce political risks. -- G E R M A N V E R S I O N: In den letzten Jahren hat Kroatien mehrere Handelsabkommen unterzeichnet. Die Hauptelemente der kroatischen Handelspolitik sind die Mitgliedschaft in der WTO, das Stabilisierungsund Assoziierungsabkommen mit der EU und der Antrag auf EU-Mitgliedschaft sowie die bilateralen Freihandelsabkommen innerhalb des Stabilitätspaktes für Südosteuropa. Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrages ist es, die Auswirkungen dieser Agrarhandelspolitik auf den kroatischen Agrar- und Ernährungssektor zu quantifizieren. Für die Analyse wird ein partielles Gleichgewichtsmodell verwendet, das auf Daten der Jahre 1999/2000 basiert. Für 12 Produktgruppen wird Kroatiens Handel mit Bosnien und Herzegowina, Ungarn, Slowenien, der EU-15 und dem Rest der Welt modelliert. Für die Jahre 2002 und 2005 werden drei Liberalisierungsszenarien untersucht, die sich bezüglich der Zolländerungen unterscheiden. Insgesamt zeigen die Modellergebnisse, das eine wechselseitige Handelsliberalisierung wohlfahrtssteigernde Effekte für Kroatien hat. Der Anstieg der Konsumentenwohlfahrt übersteigt den Einkommensrückgang der Landwirte und den Verlust an staatlichen Zolleinnahmen. Daher ist eine Fortsetzung der Handelsliberalisierung empfehlenswert. Allerdings kann die Handelspolitik alleine die existierenden Probleme im Agrar- und Ernährungssektor Kroatiens nicht lösen. Um unerwünschteHärten zu vermeiden, könnten für eine Übergangsphase Kompensationsmaßnahmen in Betracht gezogen werden. Der Nutzen einer Handelsliberalisierung ist vor allem in einem verbesserten Zugang zu internationalen Märkten zu sehen. Dies ermöglicht es kroatischen Verarbeitern wahrscheinlich, Skaleneffekte zu realisieren. Außerdem erhöhen international bindende Verpflichtungen wie Handelsabkommen die interne und internationale politische Glaubwürdigkeit und tragen damit dazu bei, politische Risiken zu reduzieren.Croatia,trade liberalisation,agri-food sector,partial equilibrium analysis,Kroatien,Handelsliberalisierung,Agrar- und Ernährungssektor,partielle Gleichgewichtsanalyse

    "Controlling conceptions" in management accounting and control research in German speaking countries revisited: Definition of citeria for Controlling conceptions and theses on conceptional management accounting and control research

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    The construction, analysis, and review of "controlling conceptions" (conceptions regarding the managerial accounting and control function) are important and influental branch as well a characteristic of management accounting and control research in German speaking countries. This discourse contains strong aspects if an identification and justification process for finding the unique position and specific role of controlling in academia and business functions. Still, a widely accepted and sustainable delineation against other business economics and management diciplines has not been accomplished. However, a clear picture of the scientific object is regarded as beneficial for forming and directing research endeavours. This paper aims at structuring the course of the controlling conceptions discourse by presenting criteria for judging the quality of the existing conceptions (theoretic fountdation, precision, consitency, empiracal validity), and applying these to the conceptions. Building on the assumed adequacy of the proposed critera and the thusly extracted shortcomings of the conceptions, five theses are presented, which summarise the requirements on further conceptional controlling research and propose a new direction for these endeavours regarding the scientific object.conceptional management accounting and control research; Germany; Controlling conpections; Controlling theory

    On the quantum chromatic number of a graph

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    We investigate the notion of quantum chromatic number of a graph, which is the minimal number of colours necessary in a protocol in which two separated provers can convince an interrogator with certainty that they have a colouring of the graph. After discussing this notion from first principles, we go on to establish relations with the clique number and orthogonal representations of the graph. We also prove several general facts about this graph parameter and find large separations between the clique number and the quantum chromatic number by looking at random graphs. Finally, we show that there can be no separation between classical and quantum chromatic number if the latter is 2, nor if it is 3 in a restricted quantum model; on the other hand, we exhibit a graph on 18 vertices and 44 edges with chromatic number 5 and quantum chromatic number 4.Comment: 7 pages, 1 eps figure; revtex4. v2 has some new references; v3 furthe small improvement

    Quantum Reverse Shannon Theorem

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    Dual to the usual noisy channel coding problem, where a noisy (classical or quantum) channel is used to simulate a noiseless one, reverse Shannon theorems concern the use of noiseless channels to simulate noisy ones, and more generally the use of one noisy channel to simulate another. For channels of nonzero capacity, this simulation is always possible, but for it to be efficient, auxiliary resources of the proper kind and amount are generally required. In the classical case, shared randomness between sender and receiver is a sufficient auxiliary resource, regardless of the nature of the source, but in the quantum case the requisite auxiliary resources for efficient simulation depend on both the channel being simulated, and the source from which the channel inputs are coming. For tensor power sources (the quantum generalization of classical IID sources), entanglement in the form of standard ebits (maximally entangled pairs of qubits) is sufficient, but for general sources, which may be arbitrarily correlated or entangled across channel inputs, additional resources, such as entanglement-embezzling states or backward communication, are generally needed. Combining existing and new results, we establish the amounts of communication and auxiliary resources needed in both the classical and quantum cases, the tradeoffs among them, and the loss of simulation efficiency when auxiliary resources are absent or insufficient. In particular we find a new single-letter expression for the excess forward communication cost of coherent feedback simulations of quantum channels (i.e. simulations in which the sender retains what would escape into the environment in an ordinary simulation), on non-tensor-power sources in the presence of unlimited ebits but no other auxiliary resource. Our results on tensor power sources establish a strong converse to the entanglement-assisted capacity theorem.Comment: 35 pages, to appear in IEEE-IT. v2 has a fixed proof of the Clueless Eve result, a new single-letter formula for the "spread deficit", better error scaling, and an improved strong converse. v3 and v4 each make small improvements to the presentation and add references. v5 fixes broken reference

    Remote preparation of quantum states

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    Remote state preparation is the variant of quantum state teleportation in which the sender knows the quantum state to be communicated. The original paper introducing teleportation established minimal requirements for classical communication and entanglement but the corresponding limits for remote state preparation have remained unknown until now: previous work has shown, however, that it not only requires less classical communication but also gives rise to a trade-off between these two resources in the appropriate setting. We discuss this problem from first principles, including the various choices one may follow in the definitions of the actual resources. Our main result is a general method of remote state preparation for arbitrary states of many qubits, at a cost of 1 bit of classical communication and 1 bit of entanglement per qubit sent. In this "universal" formulation, these ebit and cbit requirements are shown to be simultaneously optimal by exhibiting a dichotomy. Our protocol then yields the exact trade-off curve for arbitrary ensembles of pure states and pure entangled states (including the case of incomplete knowledge of the ensemble probabilities), based on the recently established quantum-classical trade-off for quantum data compression. The paper includes an extensive discussion of our results, including the impact of the choice of model on the resources, the topic of obliviousness, and an application to private quantum channels and quantum data hiding.Comment: 21 pages plus 2 figures (eps), revtex4. v2 corrects some errors and adds obliviousness discussion. v3 has section VI C deleted and various minor oversights correcte