15,529 research outputs found

    Half-Life of 14^{14}O

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    We have measured the half-life of 14^{14}O, a superallowed (0+0+)(0^{+} \to 0^{+}) β\beta decay isotope. The 14^{14}O was produced by the 12^{12}C(3^{3}He,n)14^{14}O reaction using a carbon aerogel target. A low-energy ion beam of 14^{14}O was mass separated and implanted in a thin beryllium foil. The beta particles were counted with plastic scintillator detectors. We find t1/2=70.696±0.052t_{1/2} = 70.696\pm 0.052 s. This result is 1.5σ1.5\sigma higher than an average value from six earlier experiments, but agrees more closely with the most recent previous measurement.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    Baseline design of the filters for the LAD detector on board LOFT

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    The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT) was one of the M3 missions selected for the phase A study in the ESA's Cosmic Vision program. LOFT is designed to perform high-time-resolution X-ray observations of black holes and neutron stars. The main instrument on the LOFT payload is the Large Area Detector (LAD), a collimated experiment with a nominal effective area of ~10 m 2 @ 8 keV, and a spectral resolution of ~240 eV in the energy band 2-30 keV. These performances are achieved covering a large collecting area with more than 2000 large-area Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) each one coupled to a collimator based on lead-glass micro-channel plates. In order to reduce the thermal load onto the detectors, which are open to Sky, and to protect them from out of band radiation, optical-thermal filter will be mounted in front of the SDDs. Different options have been considered for the LAD filters for best compromise between high quantum efficiency and high mechanical robustness. We present the baseline design of the optical-thermal filters, show the nominal performances, and present preliminary test results performed during the phase A study.Comment: Proc. SPIE 9144, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 91446

    Large gauge invariant non-standard neutrino interactions

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    Theories beyond the Standard Model must necessarily respect its gauge symmetry. This implies strict constraints on the possible models of non-standard neutrino interactions, which we analyze. The focus is set on the effective low-energy dimension six and eight operators involving four leptons, decomposing them according to all possible tree-level mediators, as a guide for model building. The new couplings are required to have sizeable strength, while processes involving four charged leptons are required to be suppressed. For non-standard interactions in matter, only diagonal tau-neutrino interactions can escape these requirements and can be allowed to result from dimension six operators. Large non-standard neutrino interactions from dimension eight operators alone are phenomenologically allowed in all flavour channels and shown to require at least two new mediator particles. The new couplings must obey general cancellation conditions both at the dimension six and eight levels, which result from expressing the operators obtained from the mediator analysis in terms of a complete basis of operators. We illustrate with one example how to apply this information to model building.Comment: 34 pages, 4 figures, 5 tables. Final version in PR

    Neutrino mass from higher than d=5 effective operators in SUSY, and its test at the LHC

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    We discuss neutrino masses from higher than d=5 effective operators in a supersymmetric framework, where we explicitly demonstrate which operators could be the leading contribution to neutrino mass in the MSSM and NMSSM. As an example, we focus on the d=7 operator L L H_u H_u H_d H_u, for which we systematically derive all tree-level decompositions. We argue that many of these lead to a linear or inverse see-saw scenario with two extra neutral fermions, where the lepton number violating term is naturally suppressed by a heavy mass scale when the extra mediators are integrated out. We choose one example, for which we discuss possible implementations of the neutrino flavor structure. In addition, we show that the heavy mediators, in this case SU(2) doublet fermions, may indeed be observable at the LHC, since they can be produced by Drell-Yan processes and lead to displaced vertices when they decay. However, the direct observation of lepton number violating processes is on the edge at LHC.Comment: 24 pages, 5 figures, 6 table

    First appraisal to define prospective seismogenic sources from historical earthquake damages in southern Upper Rhine Graben

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    The southern portion ofthe Upper Rhine Graben, a major oblique rift among France, Germany and Switzerland, shows a weak instrumental seismic record despite its remarkable physiographic imprint within the Northern Alpine foreland. Since traces of active deformation can be found in this region and based on experience in other European areas with high seismic hazard and dense population, we searched for past earthquakes recorded in historical catalogues. Based on the fact that tectonic deformation cumulates through geological time and considering that long-term effects tend to leave characteristic signatures on present-day landscape arrangement, our goal was to identify faults that could have caused the damage of recorded historical events. We isolated five main earthquakes, ofmoderate Richter magnitude, essentially located on the E flank of the graben (as is the case with recent seismic activity). To such events, we were able to associate a specific prospective structure through the use ofa procedure thus far successfully employed in Southern European contexts. We concentrated on three events which showed (a) notable sensitivity to the density of the historical felt reports and (b) accordance with on-going subtle deformation pattern. Another, most relevant earthquake (M 5.5) yielded a promising match with the known deformation network in the region. As a template to better constrain earthquake cycle and damage potential, historical seismicity offers an invaluable tool, since it contains a specific record, although not always unambiguous. Cross-checking such data with pertinent geological information allows to devise a realistic fault geometry capable of being responsible for a specific seismic event

    Anomalous Higgs Couplings at the LHC

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    We discuss the impact and potential discovery of physics beyond the Standard Model, coupling to the Higgs sector, at the LHC. Using a model-independent effective Lagrangian approach, pure Higgs and Higgs-gauge operators are analyzed, and their origin in terms of tree-level exchange of unknown heavy messengers is systematically derived. It is demonstrated that early signals at the LHC may result from a simultaneous modification of Higgs-fermion and Higgs-gauge boson couplings induced by those operators, pointing towards singlet scalar or a triplet vector -- barring fine-tuned options. Of course, the Higgs discovery itself will also be affected by such new couplings. With increasing statistics, the remaining options can be discriminated from each other. On the other hand, the discovery of a new scalar doublet may require technology beyond the LHC, since the Higgs self-couplings have to be measured. Our conclusions are based on the complete set of tree-level decompositions of the effective operators unbiased by a specific model.Comment: 31 pages, 6 figures, version to appear in Phys.Rev.

    Distinguishing multi-partite states by local measurements

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    We analyze the distinguishability norm on the states of a multi-partite system, defined by local measurements. Concretely, we show that the norm associated to a tensor product of sufficiently symmetric measurements is essentially equivalent to a multi-partite generalisation of the non-commutative 2-norm (aka Hilbert-Schmidt norm): in comparing the two, the constants of domination depend only on the number of parties but not on the Hilbert spaces dimensions. We discuss implications of this result on the corresponding norms for the class of all measurements implementable by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), and in particular on the leading order optimality of multi-party data hiding schemes.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figures, 1 unreferenced referenc

    Neutral Evolution as Diffusion in phenotype space: reproduction with mutation but without selection

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    The process of `Evolutionary Diffusion', i.e. reproduction with local mutation but without selection in a biological population, resembles standard Diffusion in many ways. However, Evolutionary Diffusion allows the formation of local peaks with a characteristic width that undergo drift, even in the infinite population limit. We analytically calculate the mean peak width and the effective random walk step size, and obtain the distribution of the peak width which has a power law tail. We find that independent local mutations act as a diffusion of interacting particles with increased stepsize.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Paper now representative of published articl

    Unambiguous determination of spin dephasing times in ZnO

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    Time-resolved magneto-optics is a well-established optical pump probe technique to generate and to probe spin coherence in semiconductors. By this method, spin dephasing times T_2^* can easily be determined if their values are comparable to the available pump-probe-delays. If T_2^* exceeds the laser repetition time, however, resonant spin amplification (RSA) can equally be used to extract T_2^*. We demonstrate that in ZnO these techniques have several tripping hazards resulting in deceptive values for T_2^* and show how to avoid them. We show that the temperature dependence of the amplitude ratio of two separate spin species can easily be misinterpreted as a strongly temperature dependent T_2^* of a single spin ensemble, while the two spin species have T_2^* values which are nearly independent of temperature. Additionally, consecutive pump pulses can significantly diminish the spin polarization, which remains from previous pump pulses. While this barely affects T_2^* values extracted from delay line scans, it results in seemingly shorter T_2^* values in RSA.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figure
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