820 research outputs found

    Global properties of Stochastic Loewner evolution driven by Levy processes

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    Standard Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) is driven by a continuous Brownian motion which then produces a trace, a continuous fractal curve connecting the singular points of the motion. If jumps are added to the driving function, the trace branches. In a recent publication [1] we introduced a generalized SLE driven by a superposition of a Brownian motion and a fractal set of jumps (technically a stable L\'evy process). We then discussed the small-scale properties of the resulting L\'evy-SLE growth process. Here we discuss the same model, but focus on the global scaling behavior which ensues as time goes to infinity. This limiting behavior is independent of the Brownian forcing and depends upon only a single parameter, α\alpha, which defines the shape of the stable L\'evy distribution. We learn about this behavior by studying a Fokker-Planck equation which gives the probability distribution for endpoints of the trace as a function of time. As in the short-time case previously studied, we observe that the properties of this growth process change qualitatively and singularly at α=1\alpha =1. We show both analytically and numerically that the growth continues indefinitely in the vertical direction for α>1\alpha > 1, goes as log⁡t\log t for α=1\alpha = 1, and saturates for α<1\alpha< 1. The probability density has two different scales corresponding to directions along and perpendicular to the boundary. In the former case, the characteristic scale is X(t)∼t1/αX(t) \sim t^{1/\alpha}. In the latter case the scale is Y(t)∼A+Bt1−1/αY(t) \sim A + B t^{1-1/\alpha} for α≠1\alpha \neq 1, and Y(t)∼ln⁡tY(t) \sim \ln t for α=1\alpha = 1. Scaling functions for the probability density are given for various limiting cases.Comment: Published versio

    Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics of Granular Aluminum Resonators

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    The introduction of crystalline defects or dopants can give rise to so-called "dirty superconductors", characterized by reduced coherence length and quasiparticle mean free path. In particular, granular superconductors such as Granular Aluminum (GrAl), consisting of remarkably uniform grains connected by Josephson contacts have attracted interest since the sixties thanks to their rich phase diagram and practical advantages, like increased critical temperature, critical field, and kinetic inductance. Here we report the measurement and modeling of circuit quantum electrodynamics properties of GrAl microwave resonators in a wide frequency range, up to the spectral superconducting gap. Interestingly, we observe self-Kerr coefficients ranging from 10−210^{-2} Hz to 10510^5 Hz, within an order of magnitude from analytic calculations based on GrAl microstructure. This amenable nonlinearity, combined with the relatively high quality factors in the 10510^5 range, open new avenues for applications in quantum information processing and kinetic inductance detectors.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, supplementary informatio

    PAS-positive lymphocyte vacuoles can be used as diagnostic screening test for Pompe disease

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    Screening of blood films for the presence of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive lymphocyte vacuoles is sometimes used to support the diagnosis of Pompe disease, but the actual diagnostic value is still unknown. We collected peripheral blood films from 65 untreated Pompe patients and 51 controls. Lymphocyte vacuolization was quantified using three methods: percentage vacuolated lymphocytes, percentage PAS-positive lymphocytes, and a PAS score depending on staining intensity. Diagnostic accuracy of the tests was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. All three methods fully discerned classic infantile patients from controls. The mean values of patients with milder forms of Pompe disease were significantly higher than those of controls, but full separation was not obtained. The area under the ROC curve was 0.98 for the percentage vacuolated lymphocytes (optimal cutoff value 3; sensitivity 91%, specificity 96%) and 0.99 for the percentage PAS-positive lymphocytes and PAS score (optimal cutoff value 9; sensitivity 100%, specificity 98%). Our data indicate that PAS-stained blood films can be used as a reliable screening tool to support a diagnosis of Pompe disease. The percentage of PAS-positive lymphocytes is convenient for use in clinical practice but should always be interpreted in combination with other clinical and laboratory parameters

    The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS): Tracing the circumnuclear star formation in the super-Eddington NLS1 Mrk 1044

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    The host galaxy conditions for rapid supermassive black hole growth are poorly understood. Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies often exhibit high accretion rates and are hypothesized to be prototypes of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at an early stage of their evolution. We present VLT MUSE NFM-AO observations of Mrk 1044, the nearest super-Eddington accreting NLS1. Together with archival MUSE WFM data we aim to understand the host galaxy processes that drive Mrk 1044's black hole accretion. We extract the faint stellar continuum emission from the AGN-deblended host and perform spatially resolved emission line diagnostics with an unprecedented resolution. Combining both MUSE WFM and NFM-AO observations, we use a kinematic model of a thin rotating disk to trace the stellar and ionized gas motion from 10 \,kpc down to 30 \,pc around the nucleus. Mrk 1044's stellar kinematics follow circular rotation, whereas the ionized gas shows tenuous spiral features in the center. We resolve a compact star forming circumnuclear ellipse (CNE) that has a semi-minor axis of 306 \,pc. Within this CNE, the gas is metal rich and its line ratios are entirely consistent with excitation by star formation. With an integrated SFR of 0.19±0.05 M⊙ yr−10.19 \pm 0.05 \,{\rm M}_\odot\,{\rm yr}^{-1} the CNE contributes 27% of the galaxy-wide star formation. We conclude that Mrk 1044's nuclear activity has not yet affected the circumnuclear star formation. Thus, Mrk 1044 is consistent with the idea that NLS1s are young AGN. A simple mass budget consideration suggests that the circumnuclear star formation and AGN phase are connected and the patterns in the ionized gas velocity field are a signature of the ongoing AGN feeding.Comment: accepted for publication in A&A, 17 pages, 14 figures, 1 table, for Fig. 5 associated animation see https://youtube.com/watch?v=H_WSgWJSCf

    Methylated free-circulating HPP1 DNA is an early response marker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

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    Detection of methylated free-circulating DNA (mfcDNA) for hyperplastic polyposis 1 (HPP1) in blood is correlated with a poor prognosis for patients with metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC). Here, we analyzed the plasma levels of HPP1 mfcDNA in mCRC patients treated with a combination therapy containing a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab to test whether HPP1 mfcDNA is a suitable prognostic and response biomarker. From 467 patients of the prospective clinical study AIO-KRK-0207, mfcDNA was isolated from plasma samples at different time points and bisulfite-treated mfcDNA was quantified using methylation specific PCR. About 337 of 467 patients had detectable levels for HPP1 mfcDNA before start of treatment. The detection was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.86; 95%CI 1.37-2.53). About 2-3 weeks after the first administration of combination chemotherapy, HPP1 mfcDNA was reduced to non-detectable levels in 167 of 337 patients. These patients showed a better OS compared with patients with continued detection of HPP1 mfcDNA (HR HPP1(sample 1: pos/ sample 2: neg) vs. HPP1(neg/neg) = 1.41; 95%CI 1.00-2.01, HPP1(neg,pos/pos) vs. HPP1(neg/neg) = 2.60; 95%CI 1.86-3.64). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that HPP1 mfcDNA discriminates well between patients who do (not) respond to therapy according to the radiological staging after 12 or 24 weeks (AUC = 0.77 or 0.71, respectively). Detection of HPP1 mfcDNA can be used as a prognostic marker and an early marker for response (as early as 3-4 weeks after start of treatment compared with radiological staging after 12 or 24 weeks) to identify patients who will likely benefit from a combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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