1,867 research outputs found

    Evolution of 4 pi observables in the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory and the transverse momentum transfer as a barometer for hadronic matter

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    We study the dynamics of high energy heavy ion collisions through the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck approach. Equilibration is observed, for central collisions. It is shown that the produced entropy, the pion multiplicity, flow angle, and transverse momentum distributions saturate at the moment of maximum compression and temperature. The effects of the nuclear equation of state and the Pauli principle are investigated. For the flow angle distribution there is a 20 deg reduction of the peak flow angle due to the Pauli principle. A stiff equation of state results in a 10–20 deg increase over the soft equation of state at all energies. The transverse momentum at projectile rapidity exhibits a peak structure as a function of impact parameter b. A 40% difference between soft and hard equation of state is observed for the peak impact parameter, i.e., for intermediate multiplicities

    Mean field effects in hot compressed nuclear matter

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    We study effects of the mean field in hot compressed nuclear matter in the context of the Vlasov Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory. The expansion of a spherical distribution at different temperatures is studied along with collisions of Nb+Nb and Au+Au at lab energies from 50 to 1050 MeV/nucleon. In both the expansion and the actual heavy ion collision simulation, a transition behavior is seen only at the lowest temperature (T<10 MeV) or bombarding energy (E=50 MeV/nucleon), where the attractive part of the mean field is able to bind the expanding matter. At the lowest energy one thus sees the formation of a central residue, whereas at higher bombarding energies there is complete disintegration of the centrally colliding nuclei. The spectrum of emitted nucleons is found to be much hotter than the kinetic energy spectrum of the central emitting region. The extracted temperature slope parameters are in agreement with recent data

    Spectral statistics of a minimal quantum glass model

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    Glasses have the interesting feature of being neither integrable nor fully chaotic. They thermalize quickly within a subspace but thermalize much more slowly across the full space due to high free energy barriers which partition the configuration space into sectors. Past works have examined the Rosenzweig-Porter (RP) model as a minimal quantum model which transitions from localized to chaotic behavior. In this work we generalize the RP model in such a way that it becomes a minimal model which transitions from glassy to chaotic behavior, which we term the "Block Rosenzweig-Porter" (BRP) model. We calculate the spectral form factors of both models at all timescales. Whereas the RP model exhibits a crossover from localized to ergodic behavior at the Thouless timescale, the new BRP model instead crosses over from glassy to fully chaotic behavior, as seen by a change in the slope of the ramp of the spectral form factor.Comment: 41 pages, 10 figure

    Fermi Large Area Telescope Constraints on the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

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    The Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ~10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift- and energy-dependent attenuation of the gamma-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope onboard Fermi detects a sample of gamma-ray blazars with redshift up to z~3, and GRBs with redshift up to z~4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of gamma-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the gamma-ray opacity of the Universe at various energies and redshifts, and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. (2006) can be ruled out with high confidence.Comment: 42 pages, 12 figures, accepted version (24 Aug.2010) for publication in ApJ; Contact authors: A. Bouvier, A. Chen, S. Raino, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, L.C. Reye

    A population of gamma-ray emitting globular clusters seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

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    Globular clusters with their large populations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are believed to be potential emitters of high-energy gamma-ray emission. Our goal is to constrain the millisecond pulsar populations in globular clusters from analysis of gamma-ray observations. We use 546 days of continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to study the gamma-ray emission towards 13 globular clusters. Steady point-like high-energy gamma-ray emission has been significantly detected towards 8 globular clusters. Five of them (47 Tucanae, Omega Cen, NGC 6388, Terzan 5, and M 28) show hard spectral power indices (0.7<Γ<1.4)(0.7 < \Gamma <1.4) and clear evidence for an exponential cut-off in the range 1.0-2.6 GeV, which is the characteristic signature of magnetospheric emission from MSPs. Three of them (M 62, NGC 6440 and NGC 6652) also show hard spectral indices (1.0<Γ<1.7)(1.0 < \Gamma < 1.7), however the presence of an exponential cut-off can not be unambiguously established. Three of them (Omega Cen, NGC 6388, NGC 6652) have no known radio or X-ray MSPs yet still exhibit MSP spectral properties. From the observed gamma-ray luminosities, we estimate the total number of MSPs that is expected to be present in these globular clusters. We show that our estimates of the MSP population correlate with the stellar encounter rate and we estimate 2600-4700 MSPs in Galactic globular clusters, commensurate with previous estimates. The observation of high-energy gamma-ray emission from a globular cluster thus provides a reliable independent method to assess their millisecond pulsar populations that can be used to make constraints on the original neutron star X-ray binary population, essential for understanding the importance of binary systems in slowing the inevitable core collapse of globular clusters.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A. Corresponding authors: J. Kn\"odlseder, N. Webb, B. Pancraz

    Gamma-ray and radio properties of six pulsars detected by the fermi large area telescope

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    We report the detection of pulsed Îł-rays for PSRs J0631+1036, J0659+1414, J0742-2822, J1420-6048, J1509-5850, and J1718-3825 using the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST). Although these six pulsars are diverse in terms of their spin parameters, they share an important feature: their Îł-ray light curves are (at least given the current count statistics) single peaked. For two pulsars, there are hints for a double-peaked structure in the light curves. The shapes of the observed light curves of this group of pulsars are discussed in the light of models for which the emission originates from high up in the magnetosphere. The observed phases of the Îł-ray light curves are, in general, consistent with those predicted by high-altitude models, although we speculate that the Îł-ray emission of PSR J0659+1414, possibly featuring the softest spectrum of all Fermi pulsars coupled with a very low efficiency, arises from relatively low down in the magnetosphere. High-quality radio polarization data are available showing that all but one have a high degree of linear polarization. This allows us to place some constraints on the viewing geometry and aids the comparison of the Îł-ray light curves with high-energy beam models

    Detection of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi

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    Gamma-Ray Pulsar Bonanza Most of the pulsars we know about were detected through their radio emission; a few are known to pulse gamma rays but were first detected at other wavelengths (see the Perspective by Halpern ). Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Abdo et al. (p. 840 , published online 2 July; see the cover) report the detection of 16 previously unknown pulsars based on their gamma-ray emission alone. Thirteen of these coincide with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, solving the 30-year-old mystery of their identities. Pulsars are fast-rotating neutron stars. With time they slow down and cease to radiate; however, if they are in a binary system, they can have their spin rates increased by mass transfer from their companion stars, starting a new life as millisecond pulsars. In another study, Abdo et al. (p. 845 ) report the detection of gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, which is coming from an ensemble of millisecond pulsars in the cluster's core. The data imply that there are up to 60 millisecond pulsars in 47 Tucanae, twice as many as predicted by radio observations. In a further companion study, Abdo et al. (p. 848 , published online 2 July) searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars outside of stellar clusters, finding gamma-ray pulsations for eight of them. Their properties resemble those of other gamma-ray pulsars, suggesting that they share the same basic emission mechanism. Indeed, both sets of pulsars favor emission models in which the gamma rays are produced in the outer magnetosphere of the neutron star

    A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

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    Gamma-Ray Pulsar Bonanza Most of the pulsars we know about were detected through their radio emission; a few are known to pulse gamma rays but were first detected at other wavelengths (see the Perspective by Halpern ). Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Abdo et al. (p. 840 , published online 2 July; see the cover) report the detection of 16 previously unknown pulsars based on their gamma-ray emission alone. Thirteen of these coincide with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, solving the 30-year-old mystery of their identities. Pulsars are fast-rotating neutron stars. With time they slow down and cease to radiate; however, if they are in a binary system, they can have their spin rates increased by mass transfer from their companion stars, starting a new life as millisecond pulsars. In another study, Abdo et al. (p. 845 ) report the detection of gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, which is coming from an ensemble of millisecond pulsars in the cluster's core. The data imply that there are up to 60 millisecond pulsars in 47 Tucanae, twice as many as predicted by radio observations. In a further companion study, Abdo et al. (p. 848 , published online 2 July) searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars outside of stellar clusters, finding gamma-ray pulsations for eight of them. Their properties resemble those of other gamma-ray pulsars, suggesting that they share the same basic emission mechanism. Indeed, both sets of pulsars favor emission models in which the gamma rays are produced in the outer magnetosphere of the neutron star

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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