5,439 research outputs found

    Wellbeing in School and Arts Related Research for Patient Benefit Feasibility Study

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    Cognitive Processes Associated with Sequential Tool Use in New Caledonian Crows

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    Background: Using tools to act on non-food objects-for example, to make other tools-is considered to be a hallmark of human intelligence, and may have been a crucial step in our evolution. One form of this behaviour, 'sequential tool use', has been observed in a number of non-human primates and even in one bird, the New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides). While sequential tool use has often been interpreted as evidence for advanced cognitive abilities, such as planning and analogical reasoning, the behaviour itself can be underpinned by a range of different cognitive mechanisms, which have never been explicitly examined. Here, we present experiments that not only demonstrate new tool-using capabilities in New Caledonian crows, but allow examination of the extent to which crows understand the physical interactions involved. Methodology/Principal Findings: In two experiments, we tested seven captive New Caledonian crows in six tasks requiring the use of up to three different tools in a sequence to retrieve food. Our study incorporated several novel features: (i) we tested crows on a three-tool problem (subjects were required to use a tool to retrieve a second tool, then use the second tool to retrieve a third one, and finally use the third one to reach for food); (ii) we presented tasks of different complexity in random rather than progressive order; (iii) we included a number of control conditions to test whether tool retrieval was goal-directed; and (iv) we manipulated the subjects' pre-testing experience. Five subjects successfully used tools in a sequence (four from their first trial), and four subjects repeatedly solved the three-tool condition. Sequential tool use did not require, but was enhanced by, pre-training on each element in the sequence ('chaining'), an explanation that could not be ruled out in earlier studies. By analyzing tool choice, tool swapping and improvement over time, we show that successful subjects did not use a random probing strategy. However, we find no firm evidence to support previous claims that sequential tool use demonstrates analogical reasoning or human-like planning. Conclusions/Significance: While the ability of subjects to use three tools in sequence reveals a competence beyond that observed in any other species, our study also emphasises the importance of parsimony in comparative cognitive science: seemingly intelligent behaviour can be achieved without the involvement of high-level mental faculties, and detailed analyses are necessary before accepting claims for complex cognitive abilities.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Observations and dynamical implications of active normal faulting in South Peru

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    SUMMARY Orogenic plateaus can exist in a delicate balance in which the buoyancy forces due to gravity acting on the high topography and thick crust of the plateau interior are balanced by the compressional forces acting across their forelands. Any shortening or extension within a plateau can indicate a perturbation to this force balance. In this study, we present new observations of the kinematics, morphology and slip rates of active normal faults in the South Peruvian Altiplano obtained from field studies, high-resolution DEMs, Quaternary dating and remote sensing. We then investigate the implications of this faulting for the forces acting on the Andes. We find that the mountains are extending ∼NNE–SSW to ∼NE–SW along a normal fault system that cuts obliquely across the Altiplano plateau, which in many places reactivates Miocene-age reverse faults. Radiocarbon dating of offset late Quaternary moraines and alluvial fan surfaces indicates horizontal extension rates across the fault system of between 1 and 4 mm yr–1—equivalent to an extensional strain rate in the range of 0.5–2 × 10−8 1 yr–1 averaged across the plateau. We suggest the rate and pattern of extension implies there has been a change in the forces exerted between the foreland and the Andes mountains. A reduction in the average shear stresses on the sub-Andean foreland detachment of ≲4 MPa (20–25 per cent of the total force) can account for the rate of extension. These results show that, within a mountain belt, the pattern of faulting is sensitive to small spatial and temporal variations in the strength of faults along their margins.Denman Baynes Senior Studentship, Clare College Cambridge Arup Santander Mobility Grant (University of Cambridge

    Carnival of invention

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    © 2019, Institut für Qualitative Forschung,Internationale Akademie Berlin gGmbH. All rights reserved. In this report we present a reflection on the Collaborative Poetics Network’s first “Carnival of Invention” which was held on 15th June 2018 at the University of Brighton, England. Collaborative poetics is an arts-based research method that brings together expertise from artists, academics, and community participants, to share knowledge and promote social change through engaging and accessible ways. On the day of the Carnival over 40 contributors from around the world came to participate in a series of workshops, presentations, installations and displays. In this article we outline the themes addressed on the day and the media utilized in these interactive and experiential sessions. We argue that this event supported the benefits of arts-based research in developing, analyzing, and communicating rich data sets. Finally, we provide evaluation and reflections from the event (including in haiku, a traditional Japanese form of poetry), in an attempt to creatively capture the events of the day

    Direct Measurement of the Top Quark Mass at D0

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    We determine the top quark mass m_t using t-tbar pairs produced in the D0 detector by \sqrt{s} = 1.8 TeV p-pbar collisions in a 125 pb^-1 exposure at the Fermilab Tevatron. We make a two constraint fit to m_t in t-tbar -> b W^+bbar W^- final states with one W boson decaying to q-qbar and the other to e-nu or mu-nu. Likelihood fits to the data yield m_t(l+jets) = 173.3 +- 5.6 (stat) +- 5.5 (syst) GeV/c^2. When this result is combined with an analysis of events in which both W bosons decay into leptons, we obtain m_t = 172.1 +- 5.2 (stat) +- 4.9 (syst) GeV/c^2. An alternate analysis, using three constraint fits to fixed top quark masses, gives m_t(l+jets) = 176.0 +- 7.9 (stat) +- 4.8 (syst) GeV/C^2, consistent with the above result. Studies of kinematic distributions of the top quark candidates are also presented.Comment: 43 pages, 53 figures, 33 tables. RevTeX. Submitted to Phys. Rev.