65 research outputs found

    HST/NICMOS Observations of NGC 1333: The Ratio of Stars to Sub-Stellar Objects

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    We present an analysis of NICMOS photometry and low-resolution grism spectroscopy of low-mass stars and sub-stellar objects in the young star-forming region NGC 1333. Our goal is to constrain the ratio of low-mass stars to sub- stellar objects down to 20 Mjup in the cluster as well as constrain the cluster IMF down to 30 Mjup in combination with a previous survey of NGC 1333 by Wilking et al. Our survey covers 4 fields of 51.2" x 51.2", centered on brown dwarf candidates previously identified in Wilking et al. We extend previous work based on the use of a water vapor index for spectral typing to wavelengths accessible with NICMOS on the HST. Spectral types were derived for the 14 brightest objects in our fields, ranging from <M0 - M8, which at the age of the cluster (0.3 Myr) corresponds to a range in mass of >0.25 - 0.02 Msun. In addition to the spectra, we present an analysis of the color-magnitude diagram using pre-main sequence evolutionary models of D'Antona & Mazzitelli. Using an extinction-limited sample, we derive the ratio of low-mass stars to brown dwarfs. Comparisons of the observed ratio to that expected from the field IMF of Chabrier indicate that the two results are consistent. We combine our data with that of Wilking et al. to compute the ratio of intermediate-mass stars (0.1 - 1.0 Msun) to low-mass objects (0.03 - 0.1 Msun) in the cluster. We also report the discovery of a faint companion to the previously confirmed brown dwarf ASR 28, as well as a possible outflow surrounding ASR 16. If the faint companion is confirmed as a cluster member, it would have a mass of ~ 5 Mjup (mass ratio 0.15) at a projected distance of 350 AU, similar to 2MASS 1207-3923 B.Comment: 33 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication by A

    Research and Development for Near Detector Systems Towards Long Term Evolution of Ultra-precise Long-baseline Neutrino Experiments

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    With the discovery of non-zero value of θ13\theta_{13} mixing angle, the next generation of long-baseline neutrino (LBN) experiments offers the possibility of obtaining statistically significant samples of muon and electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos with large oscillation effects. In this document we intend to highlight the importance of Near Detector facilities in LBN experiments to both constrain the systematic uncertainties affecting oscillation analyses but also to perform, thanks to their close location, measurements of broad benefit for LBN physics goals. A strong European contribution to these efforts is possible

    Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011

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    To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008–2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed

    Spectroscopy of Brown Dwarf Candidates in the ρ Ophiuchi Molecular Core

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    We present an analysis of low-resolution infrared spectra for 20 brown dwarf candidates in the core of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud. Fifteen of the sources display absorption-line spectra characteristic of late-type stars. By comparing the depths of water vapor absorption bands in our candidate objects with a grid of M dwarf standards, we derive spectral types that are independent of reddening. Optical spectroscopy of one brown dwarf candidate confirms the spectral type derived from the water bands. Combining their spectral types with published near-infrared photometry, effective temperatures and bolometric stellar luminosities are derived, enabling us to place our sample on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We compare the positions of the brown dwarf candidates in this diagram with two sets of theoretical models in order to estimate their masses and ages. Considering uncertainties in placing the candidates in the H-R diagram, six objects consistently lie in the brown dwarf regime and another five objects lie in the transition region between stellar and substellar objects. The ages inferred for the sample are consistent with those derived for higher mass association members. Three of the newly identified brown dwarfs display infrared excesses at λ = 2.2 μm, suggesting that young brown dwarfs can have active accretion disks. Comparing our mass estimates of the brown dwarf candidates with those derived from photometric data alone suggests that spectroscopy is an essential component of investigations of the mass functions of young clusters

    Optical Spectroscopy of the Surface Population of the ρ Ophiuchi Molecular Cloud: The First Wave of Star Formation

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    We present the results of optical spectroscopy of 139 stars obtained with the Hydra multiobject spectrograph. The objects extend over a 1.3 deg2 area surrounding the main cloud of the ρ Oph complex. The objects were selected from narrowband images to have Hα in emission. Using the presence of strong Hα emission, lithium absorption, location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, or previously reported X-ray emission, we were able to identify 88 objects as young stars associated with the cloud. Strong Hα emission was confirmed in 39 objects with line widths consistent with their origin in magnetospheric accretion columns. Two of the strongest emission-line objects are young, X-ray-emitting brown dwarf candidates with M8 spectral types. Comparisons of the bolometric luminosities and effective temperatures with theoretical models suggest a median age for this population of 2.1 Myr, which is significantly older than the ages derived for objects in the cloud core. It appears that these stars formed contemporaneously with low-mass stars in the Upper Scorpius subgroup, likely triggered by massive stars in the Upper Centaurus subgroup