107 research outputs found

    Competition between diffusion and advection may mediate self-repair of wax microstructures on plant surfaces

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    Cuticles are extracellular membranes covering the primary aerial parts of vascular plants. They consist of a multifunctional polymeric material with embedded soluble components, called waxes and serve as the interface between plants and their atmospheric environment, first of all protecting them from desiccation. Waxes are produced within the epidermal cells, then transported to the leaf surface and finally integrated into the polymer or deposited upon the cuticle. Remarkably, damaged wax layers may become repaired within a few hours. Base on an earlier hypothesis we present a theoretical framework explaining how waxes are transported through the plant epidermis by a combination of advection and diffusion. This combination suggests also a self-regulating repair mechanism, based on the assumption that intact cuticles induce an antagonistic equilibrium between advection and diffusion: whenever a wax layer is damaged, the equilibrium is disturbed in favour of advection, starting a repair process, which is intrinsically coming to an end after the cuticle has gained its original thickness

    MicroRNA-210 induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer via induction of reactive oxygen

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    Additional file 2: Figure S2. Representative flow cytometric histograms of CRC cell lines 72 h post transfection with pre-miR-210 and a control miRNA, respectively. Cells were stained with by PI staining and subjected to FACS analysis

    Mutations in POLE and survival of colorectal cancer patients – link to disease stage and treatment

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    Recent molecular profiling studies reported a new class of ultramutated colorectal cancers (CRCs), which are caused by exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in DNA polymerase ϵ (POLE). Data on the clinical implications of these findings as to whether these mutations define a unique CRC entity with distinct clinical outcome are lacking. We performed Sanger sequencing of the POLE exonuclease domain in 431 well-characterized patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs of a population-based patient cohort. Mutation data were analyzed for associations with major epidemiological, clinical, genetic, and pathological parameters including overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). In 373 of 431 MSS CRC, all exons of the exonuclease domain were analyzable. Fifty-four mutations were identified in 46 of these samples (12.3%). Besides already reported EDMs, we detected many new mutations in exons 13 and 14 (corresponding to amino acids 410–491) as well as in exon 9 and exon 11 (corresponding to aa 268–303 and aa 341–369). However, we did not see any significant associations of EDMs with clinicopathological parameters, including sex, age, tumor location and tumor stage, CIMP, KRAS, and BRAF mutations. While with a median follow-up time of 5.0 years, survival analysis of the whole cohort revealed nonsignificantly different adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.82–2.25) and 1.44 (0.81–2.58) for OS and DSS indicating slightly impaired survival of patients with EDMs, subgroup analysis for patients with stage III/IV disease receiving chemotherapy revealed a statistically significantly increased adjusted HR (1.87; 95%CI: 1.02–3.44). In conclusion, POLE EDMs do not appear to define an entirely new clinically distinct disease entity in CRC but may have prognostic or predictive implications in CRC subgroups, whose significance remains to be investigated in future studies

    Visual feedback explains why propointing is better than antipointing in spatial neglect

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    Kathrin S. Utz held a post-doctoral research fellowship of the Friedrich-AlexanderUniversity Erlangen-Nuremberg (program for the promotion of equal opportunities of women in science) at the time of data collection. Thomas Schenk was supported by grants from the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG, grant no’s: DFG-SCHE 735/2-1 and DFG-SCHE 735/3-1).Peer reviewedPostprin

    pT3 colorectal cancer revisited: a multicentric study on the histological depth of invasion in more than 1000 pT3 carcinomas—proposal for a new pT3a/pT3b subclassification

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    BACKGROUND: Pathological TNM staging (pTNM) is the strongest prognosticator in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and the foundation of its post-operative clinical management. Tumours that invade pericolic/perirectal adipose tissue generally fall into the pT3 category without further subdivision. METHODS: The histological depth of invasion into the pericolic/perirectal fat was digitally and conventionally measured in a training cohort of 950 CRCs (Munich). We biostatistically calculated the optimal cut-off to stratify pT3 CRCs into novel pT3a (≤3 mm)/pT3b (>3 mm) subgroups, which were then validated in two independent cohorts (447 CRCs, Bayreuth/542 CRCs, Mainz). RESULTS: Compared to pT3a tumours, pT3b CRCs showed significantly worse disease-specific survival, including in pN0 vs pN+ and colonic vs. rectal cancers (DSS: P < 0.001, respectively, pooled analysis of all cohorts). Furthermore, the pT3a/pT3b subclassification remained an independent predictor of survival in multivariate analyses (e.g. DSS: P < 0.001, hazard ratio: 4.41 for pT3b, pooled analysis of all cohorts). While pT2/pT3a CRCs showed similar survival characteristics, pT3b cancers remained a distinct subgroup with dismal survival. DISCUSSION: The delineation of pT3a/pT3b subcategories of CRC based on the histological depth of adipose tissue invasion adds valuable prognostic information to the current pT3 classification and implementation into current staging practices of CRC should be considered

    External validation of molecular subtype classifications of colorectal cancer based on microsatellite instability, CIMP, BRAF and KRAS

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    Background: Competing molecular classification systems have been proposed to complement the TNM staging system for a better prediction of survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, validation studies are so far lacking. The aim of this study was to validate and extend previously published molecular classifications of CRC in a large independent cohort of CRC patients. Methods: CRC patients were recruited into a population-based cohort study (DACHS). Molecular subtypes were categorized based on three previously published classifications. Cox-proportional hazard models, based on the same set of patients and using the same confounders as reported by the original studies, were used to determine overall, cancer-specific, or relapse-free survival for each subtype. Hazard ratios and confidence intervals, as well as Kaplan-Meier plots were compared to those reported by the original studies. Results: We observed similar patterns of worse survival for the microsatellite stable (MSS)/BRAF-mutated and MSS/KRAS-mutated subtypes in our validation analyses, which were included in two of the validated classifications. Of the two MSI subtypes, one defined by additional presence of CIMP-high and BRAF-mutation and the other by tumors negative for CIMP, BRAF and KRAS-mutations, we could not confirm associations with better prognosis as suggested by one of the classifications. For two of the published classifications, we were able to provide results for additional subgroups not included in the original studies (men, other disease stages, other locations). Conclusions: External validation of three previously proposed classifications confirmed findings of worse survival for CRC patients with MSS subtypes and BRAF or KRAS mutations. Regarding MSI subtypes, other patient characteristics such as stage of the tumor, may influence the potential survival benefit. Further integration of methylation, genetic, and immunological information is needed to develop and validate a comprehensive classification that will have relevance for use in clinical practice

    Potential of Core-Collapse Supernova Neutrino Detection at JUNO

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    JUNO is an underground neutrino observatory under construction in Jiangmen, China. It uses 20kton liquid scintillator as target, which enables it to detect supernova burst neutrinos of a large statistics for the next galactic core-collapse supernova (CCSN) and also pre-supernova neutrinos from the nearby CCSN progenitors. All flavors of supernova burst neutrinos can be detected by JUNO via several interaction channels, including inverse beta decay, elastic scattering on electron and proton, interactions on C12 nuclei, etc. This retains the possibility for JUNO to reconstruct the energy spectra of supernova burst neutrinos of all flavors. The real time monitoring systems based on FPGA and DAQ are under development in JUNO, which allow prompt alert and trigger-less data acquisition of CCSN events. The alert performances of both monitoring systems have been thoroughly studied using simulations. Moreover, once a CCSN is tagged, the system can give fast characterizations, such as directionality and light curve
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