148 research outputs found

    Arbeit(en) oder nicht? : die Lehr-/Erfahrungsprojekte als letztes Mittel gegen die Jugendarbeitslosigkeit in den Niederlanden

    Get PDF
    "Wachsende Besch√§ftigung und abnehmende Zahl der Schulabg√§nger haben auch in den Niederlanden zu einem R√ľckgang der Jugendarbeitslosigkeit gef√ľhrt. Dennoch mu√ü dort mit einer Problemgruppe von potentiell Langzeitarbeitslosen gerechnet werden, die sich vor allem aus unqualifizierten Frauen und Angeh√∂rigen ethnischer Minderheiten zusammensetzt. Die niederl√§ndische Regierung hat verschiedene Ma√ünahmen eingeleitet, um dieser Entwicklung entgegenzusteuern. Zu den bereits in den 70er Jahren eingeleiteten Strategien geh√∂rten der verz√∂gerte Abgang aus dem Bildungssystem, eine Verbesserung der Verbindung zwischen Schule und Arbeitsmarkt und schlie√ülich die Schaffung neuer Arbeitspl√§tze. Eine wichtige Rolle spielen dabei die Lehr-/Erfahrungsprojekte, die jugendlichen Arbeitslosen eine befristete Teilzeitarbeit bei √∂ffentlich finanzierten Einrichtungen vermitteln. Die Jugendlichen sollen dabei sowohl Arbeitserfahrung sammeln als auch Schulung erhalten, um sich anschlie√üend mit Erfolg um eine "normale" Stelle bewerben zu k√∂nnen. Anhand von zwei Untersuchungen solcher Lehr-/Erfahrungsprojekte - dem "Rotterdam-Projekt" und dem "GWJ-Projekt" - werden die Erfahrungen der Jugendlichen in diesen Projekten dargestellt, insbesondere in welchem Umfang und mit welchen Erwartungen sie an den Projekten teilnehmen und inwieweit danach die berufliche Integration gelingt. Es zeigt sich, da√ü gerade die Jugendlichen, die die schlechtesten Positionen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt einnehmen, am wenigsten von den Lehr-/Erfahrungsprojekten profitieren und da√ü starke Zweifel am Sinn der Teilnahme bestehen." (Autorenreferat)Arbeitslosigkeitsbek√§mpfung, Qualifizierung, berufliche Integration, Jugendarbeitslosigkeit, Niederlande

    Disruption of the basal body protein POC1B results in autosomal-recessive cone-rod dystrophy

    Get PDF
    Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous missense mutation (c.317C>G [p.Arg106Pro]) in POC1B, encoding POC1 centriolar protein B, in three siblings with autosomal-recessive cone dystrophy or cone-rod dystrophy and compound-heterozygous POC1B mutations (c.199_201del [p.G1n67del] and c.810+1G>T) in an unrelated person with cone-rod dystrophy. Upon overexpression of POC1B in human TERT-immortalized retinal pigment epithelium 1 cells, the encoded wild-type protein localized to the basal body of the primary cilium, whereas this localization was lost for p.Arg106Pro and p.G1n67del variant forms of POC1B. Morpholino-oligonucleotide-induced knockdown of poc1b translation in zebrafish resulted in a dose-dependent small-eye phenotype, impaired optokinetic responses, and decreased length of photoreceptor outer segments. These ocular phenotypes could partially be rescued by wild-type human POC1B mRNA, but not by c.199_201del and c.317C>G mutant human POC1B mRNAs. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human retinal cDNA library revealed FAM161A as a binary interaction partner of POC1B. This was confirmed in coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization assays, which both showed loss of FAM161A interaction with p.Arg106Pro and p.G1n67del variant forms of POC1B. FAM161A was previously implicated in autosomal-recessive retinitis pigmentosa and shown to be located at the base of the photoreceptor connecting cilium, where it interacts with several other ciliopathy-associated proteins. Altogether, this study demonstrates that POC1B mutations result in a defect of the photoreceptor sensory cilium and thus affect cone and rod photoreceptors

    Sequence variants of the DFNB31 gene among Usher syndrome patients of diverse origin

    Get PDF
    Contains fulltext : 89306.pdf (publisher's version ) (Open Access)PURPOSE: It has been demonstrated that mutations in deafness, autosomal recessive 31 (DFNB31), the gene encoding whirlin, is responsible for nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL; DFNB31) and Usher syndrome type II (USH2D). We screened DFNB31 in a large cohort of patients with different clinical subtypes of Usher syndrome (USH) to determine the prevalence of DFNB31 mutations among USH patients. METHODS: DFNB31 was screened in 149 USH2, 29 USH1, six atypical USH, and 11 unclassified USH patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Mutation detection was performed by direct sequencing of all coding exons. RESULTS: We identified 38 different variants among 195 patients. Most variants were clearly polymorphic, but at least two out of the 15 nonsynonymous variants (p.R350W and p.R882S) are predicted to impair whirlin structure and function, suggesting eventual pathogenicity. No putatively pathogenic mutation was found in the second allele of patients with these mutations. CONCLUSIONS: DFNB31 is not a major cause of USH

    Disruption of the Basal Body Protein POC1B Results in Autosomal-Recessive Cone-Rod Dystrophy

    Get PDF
    Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous missense mutation (c.317C>G [p.Arg106Pro]) in POC1B, encoding POC1 centriolar protein B, in three siblings with autosomal-recessive cone dystrophy or cone-rod dystrophy and compound-heterozygous POC1B mutations (c.199_201del [p.Gln67del] and c.810+1G>T) in an unrelated person with cone-rod dystrophy. Upon overexpression of POC1B in human TERT-immortalized retinal pigment epithelium 1 cells, the encoded wild-type protein localized to the basal body of the primary cilium, whereas this localization was lost for p.Arg106Pro and p.Gln67del variant forms of POC1B. Morpholino-oligonucleotide-induced knockdown of poc1b translation in zebrafish resulted in a dose-dependent small-eye phenotype, impaired optokinetic responses, and decreased length of photoreceptor outer segments. These ocular phenotypes could partially be rescued by wild-type human POC1B mRNA, but not by c.199_201del and c.317C>G mutant human POC1B mRNAs. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human retinal cDNA library revealed FAM161A as a binary interaction partner of POC1B. This was confirmed in coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization assays, which both showed loss of FAM161A interaction with p.Arg106Pro and p.Gln67del variant forms of POC1B. FAM161A was previously implicated in autosomal-recessive retinitis pigmentosa and shown to be located at the base of the photoreceptor connecting cilium, where it interacts with several other ciliopathy-associated proteins. Altogether, this study demonstrates that POC1B mutations result in a defect of the photoreceptor sensory cilium and thus affect cone and rod photoreceptors

    Whole genome sequencing for USH2A-associated disease reveals several pathogenic deep-intronic variants that are amenable to splice correction

    Get PDF
    A significant number of individuals with a rare disorder such as Usher syndrome (USH) and (non-)syndromic autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) remain genetically unexplained. Therefore, we assessed subjects suspected of USH2A-associated disease and no or mono-allelic USH2A variants using whole genome sequencing (WGS) followed by an improved pipeline for variant interpretation to provide a conclusive diagnosis. One hundred subjects were screened using WGS to identify causative variants in USH2A or other USH/arRP-associated genes. In addition to the existing variant interpretation pipeline, a particular focus was put on assessing splice-affecting properties of variants, both in silico and in vitro. Also structural variants were extensively addressed. For variants resulting in pseudoexon inclusion, we designed and evaluated antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) using minigene splice assays and patient-derived photoreceptor precursor cells. Biallelic variants were identified in 49 of 100 subjects, including novel splice-affecting variants and structural variants, in USH2A or arRP/USH-associated genes. Thirteen variants were shown to affect USH2A pre-mRNA splicing, including four deep-intronic USH2A variants resulting in pseudoexon inclusion, which could be corrected upon AON treatment. We have shown that WGS, combined with a thorough variant interpretation pipeline focused on assessing pre-mRNA splicing defects and structural variants, is a powerful method to provide subjects with a rare genetic condition, a (likely) conclusive genetic diagnosis. This is essential for the development of future personalized treatments and for patients to be eligible for such treatments.</p

    Anti-inflammatory effect of rosiglitazone is not reflected in expression of NFőļB-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Rosiglitazone not only improves insulin-sensitivity, but also exerts anti-inflammatory effects. We have now examined in type 2 diabetic patients if these effects are reflected by changes in mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to see if these cells can be used to study these anti-inflammatory effects at the molecular level <it>in vivo</it>.</p> <p>Method</p> <p>Eleven obese type 2 diabetic patients received rosiglitazone (2 √ó 4 mg/d) for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after treatment. Ten obese control subjects served as reference group. The expression of NFőļB-related genes and PPARő≥ target genes in PBMCs, plasma TNFőĪ, IL6, MCP1 and hsCRP concentrations were measured. In addition, blood samples were obtained after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Rosiglitazone reduced plasma MCP1 and hsCRP concentrations in diabetic patients (-9.5 ¬Ī 5.3 pg/mL, <it>p </it> = 0.043 and -1.1 ¬Ī 0.3 mg/L <it>p </it> = 0.003), respectively). For hsCRP, the concentration became comparable with the non-diabetic reference group. However, of the 84 NFőļB-related genes that were measured in PBMCs from type 2 diabetic subjects, only RELA, SLC20A1, INFő≥ and IL1R1 changed significantly (<it>p </it> < 0.05). In addition, PPARő≥ and its target genes (CD36 and LPL) did not change. During the clamp, insulin reduced plasma MCP1 concentration in the diabetic and reference groups (-9.1 ¬Ī 1.8%, <it>p </it> = 0.001 and -11.1 ¬Ī 4.1%, <it>p </it> = 0.023, respectively) and increased IL6 concentration in the reference group only (23.5 ¬Ī 9.0%, <it>p </it> = 0.028).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>In type 2 diabetic patients, the anti-inflammatory effect of rosiglitazone is not reflected by changes in NFőļB and PPARő≥ target genes in PBMCs <it>in vivo</it>. Furthermore, our results do not support that high insulin concentrations contribute to the pro-inflammatory profile in type 2 diabetic patients.</p

    An organelle-specific protein landscape identifies novel diseases and molecular mechanisms

    Get PDF
    Contains fulltext : 158967.pdf (publisher's version ) (Open Access)Cellular organelles provide opportunities to relate biological mechanisms to disease. Here we use affinity proteomics, genetics and cell biology to interrogate cilia: poorly understood organelles, where defects cause genetic diseases. Two hundred and seventeen tagged human ciliary proteins create a final landscape of 1,319 proteins, 4,905 interactions and 52 complexes. Reverse tagging, repetition of purifications and statistical analyses, produce a high-resolution network that reveals organelle-specific interactions and complexes not apparent in larger studies, and links vesicle transport, the cytoskeleton, signalling and ubiquitination to ciliary signalling and proteostasis. We observe sub-complexes in exocyst and intraflagellar transport complexes, which we validate biochemically, and by probing structurally predicted, disruptive, genetic variants from ciliary disease patients. The landscape suggests other genetic diseases could be ciliary including 3M syndrome. We show that 3M genes are involved in ciliogenesis, and that patient fibroblasts lack cilia. Overall, this organelle-specific targeting strategy shows considerable promise for Systems Medicine

    Missense mutations in the WD40 domain of AHI1 cause non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa

    Get PDF
    Background: Recent findings suggesting that Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) is involved in non-syndromic retinal disease have been debated, as the functional significance of identified missense variants was uncertain. We assessed whether AHI1 variants cause non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: Exome sequencing was performed in three probands with RP. The effects of the identified missense variants in AHI1 were predicted by three-dimensional structure homology modelling. Ciliary parameters were evaluated in patient's fibroblasts, and recombinant mutant proteins were expressed in ciliated retinal pigmented epithelium cells. Results: In the three patients with RP, three sets of compound heterozygous variants were detected in AHI1 (c.2174G>A; p.Trp725* and c.2258A>T; p.Asp753Val, c.660delC; p.Ser221Glnfs*10 and c.2090C>T; p.Pro697Leu, c.2087A>G; p.His696Arg and c.2429C>T; p.Pro810Leu). All four missense variants were present in the conserved WD40 domain of Jouberin, the ciliary protein encoded by AHI1, with variable predicted implications for the domain structure. No significant changes in the percentage of ciliated cells, nor in cilium length or intraflagellar transport were detected. However, expression of mutant recombinant Jouberin in ciliated cells showed a significantly decreased enrichment at the ciliary base. Conclusions: This report confirms that mutations in AHI1 can underlie autosomal recessive RP. Moreover, it structurally and functionally validates the effect of the RP-associated AHI1 variants on protein function, thus proposing a new genotype-phenotype correlation for AHI1 mutation associated retinal ciliopathies

    Proposal of 0.5 mg of protein/100 g of processed food as threshold for voluntary declaration of food allergen traces in processed food-A first step in an initiative to better inform patients and avoid fatal allergic reactions : A GA(2)LEN position paper

    Get PDF
    Background Food anaphylaxis is commonly elicited by unintentional ingestion of foods containing the allergen above the tolerance threshold level of the individual. While labeling the 14 main allergens used as ingredients in food products is mandatory in the EU, there is no legal definition of declaring potential contaminants. Precautionary allergen labeling such as "may contain traces of" is often used. However, this is unsatisfactory for consumers as they get no information if the contamination is below their personal threshold. In discussions with the food industry and technologists, it was suggested to use a voluntary declaration indicating that all declared contaminants are below a threshold of 0.5 mg protein per 100 g of food. This concentration is known to be below the threshold of most patients, and it can be technically guaranteed in most food production. However, it was also important to assess that in case of accidental ingestion of contaminants below this threshold by highly allergic patients, no fatal anaphylactic reaction could occur. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to assess whether a fatal reaction to 5mg of protein or less has been reported, assuming that a maximum portion size of 1kg of a processed food exceeds any meal and thus gives a sufficient safety margin. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched until 24 January 2021 for provocation studies and case reports in which one of the 14 major food allergens was reported to elicit fatal or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and assessed if these occurred below the ingestion of 5mg of protein. A Delphi process was performed to obtain an expert consensus on the results. Results In the 210 studies included, in our search, no reports of fatal anaphylactic reactions reported below 5 mg protein ingested were identified. However, in provocation studies and case reports, severe reactions below 5 mg were reported for the following allergens: eggs, fish, lupin, milk, nuts, peanuts, soy, and sesame seeds. Conclusion Based on the literature studied for this review, it can be stated that cross-contamination of the 14 major food allergens below 0.5 mg/100 g is likely not to endanger most food allergic patients when a standard portion of food is consumed. We propose to use the statement "this product contains the named allergens in the list of ingredients, it may contain traces of other contaminations (to be named, e.g. nut) at concentrations less than 0.5 mg per 100 g of this product" for a voluntary declaration on processed food packages. This level of avoidance of cross-contaminations can be achieved technically for most processed foods, and the statement would be a clear and helpful message to the consumers. However, it is clearly acknowledged that a voluntary declaration is only a first step to a legally binding solution. For this, further research on threshold levels is encouraged.Peer reviewe
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore