292 research outputs found

    Therapeutic Potential of the Gut Microbiota in the Prevention and Treatment of Sepsis

    Get PDF
    Alongside advances in understanding the pathophysiology of sepsis, there have been tremendous strides in understanding the pervasive role of the gut microbiota in systemic host resistance. In pre-clinical models, a diverse and balanced gut microbiota enhances host immunity to both enteric and systemic pathogens. Disturbance of this balance increases susceptibility to sepsis and sepsis-related organ dysfunction, while restoration of the gut microbiome is protective. Patients with sepsis have a profoundly distorted composition of the intestinal microbiota, but the impact and therapeutic potential of the microbiome is not well-established in human sepsis. Modulation of the microbiota consists of either resupplying the pool of beneficial microbes by administration of probiotics, improving the intestinal microenvironment to enhance the growth of beneficial species by dietary interventions and prebiotics, or by totally recolonizing the gut with a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We propose that there are three potential opportunities to utilize these treatment modalities over the course of sepsis: to decrease sepsis incidence, to improve sepsis outcome, and to decrease late mortality after sepsis. Exploring these three avenues will provide insight into how disturbances of the microbiota can predispose to, or even perpetuate the dysregulated immune response associated with this syndrome, which in turn could be associated with improved sepsis management

    A call to action: time to recognise melioidosis as a neglected tropical disease.

    Get PDF
    Melioidosis is a tropical infection caused by the soil bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Despite the substantial impact of this often overlooked pathogen on both the health-care systems and economies of numerous low-income and middle-income countries around the world, melioidosis is not officially classified as a neglected tropical disease (NTD) by WHO. Melioidosis causes a higher estimated disease burden and mortality than many other recognised NTDs, with deaths primarily occurring among rural poor populations in low-income and middle-income countries. Fortunately, the impact of melioidosis in a region can be reduced once awareness is established of its known or suspected endemicity. In this Personal View, we provide evidence in support of official recognition of melioidosis as an NTD. We urge member states to request that WHO revisit their NTD list and appeal to government and philanthropic organisations to establish programmes in endemic countries to control melioidosis in order to reduce its global health burden

    Host–Pathogen Interaction in Invasive Salmonellosis

    Get PDF
    Salmonella enterica infections result in diverse clinical manifestations. Typhoid fever, caused by S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. Paratyphi A, is a bacteremic illness but whose clinical features differ from other Gram-negative bacteremias. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars cause self-limiting diarrhea with occasional secondary bacteremia. Primary NTS bacteremia can occur in the immunocompromised host and infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent studies on host–pathogen interactions in Salmonellosis using genome sequencing, murine models, and patient studies have provided new insights. The full genome sequences of numerous S. enterica serovars have been determined. The S. Typhi genome, compared to that of S. Typhimurium, harbors many inactivated or disrupted genes. This can partly explain the different immune responses both serovars induce upon entering their host. Similar genome degradation is also observed in the ST313 S. Typhimurium strain implicated in invasive infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Virulence factors, most notably, type III secretion systems, Vi antigen, lipopolysaccharide and other surface polysaccharides, flagella, and various factors essential for the intracellular life cycle of S. enterica have been characterized. Genes for these factors are commonly carried on Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs). Plasmids also carry putative virulence-associated genes as well as those responsible for antimicrobial resistance. The interaction of Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) leads to inflammasome formation, activation, and recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, most notably interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ. The gut microbiome may be an important modulator of this immune response. S. Typhimurium usually causes a local intestinal immune response, whereas S. Typhi, by preventing neutrophil attraction resulting from activation of TLRs, evades the local response and causes systemic infection. Potential new therapeutic strategies may lead from an increased understanding of infection pathogenesis

    Global burden of melioidosis in 2015: a systematic review and data synthesis.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is often fatal, with a high prevalence in tropical areas. Clinical presentation can vary from abscess formation to pneumonia and sepsis. We assessed the global burden of melioidosis, expressed in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), for 2015. METHODS: We did a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature for human melioidosis cases between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 2015. Quantitative data for cases of melioidosis were extracted, including mortality, age, sex, infectious and post-infectious sequelae, antibiotic treatment, and symptom duration. These data were combined with established disability weights and expert panel discussions to construct an incidence-based disease model. The disease model was integrated with established global incidence and mortality estimates to calculate global melioidosis DALYs. The study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018106372. FINDINGS: 2888 articles were screened, of which 475 eligible studies containing quantitative data were retained. Pneumonia, intra-abdominal abscess, and sepsis were the most common outcomes, with pneumonia occurring in 3633 (35·7%, 95% uncertainty interval [UI] 34·8-36·6) of 10 175 patients, intra-abdominal abscess in 1619 (18·3%, 17·5-19·1) of 8830 patients, and sepsis in 1526 (18·0%, 17·2-18·8) of 8469 patients. We estimate that in 2015, the global burden of melioidosis was 4·6 million DALYs (UI 3·2-6·6) or 84·3 per 100 000 people (57·5-120·0). Years of life lost accounted for 98·9% (UI 97·7-99·5) of the total DALYs, and years lived with disability accounted for 1·1% (0·5-2·3). INTERPRETATION: Melioidosis causes a larger disease burden than many other tropical diseases that are recognised as neglected, and so it should be reconsidered as a major neglected tropical disease. FUNDING: European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Research Grant 2018, AMC PhD Scholarship, The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network European Sepsis Academy

    Rotavirus vaccine response correlates with the infant gut microbiota composition in Pakistan

    Get PDF
    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders. We conducted a nested, matched case-control study comparing the pre-vaccination intestinal microbiota composition between 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV-responders, 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV non-responders, and 10 healthy Dutch infants. RVV response was defined as an Immunoglobulin A of >= 20 IU/mL following Rotarix (TM)(RV1) vaccination in an infant with aprevaccination IgA RV1 response correlated with a higher relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Clostridium cluster XI and Proteobacteria, including bacteria related to Serratia and Escherichia coli. Remarkably, abundance of these Proteobacteria was also significantly higher in Dutch infants when compared to RV1-non-responders in Pakistan. This small but carefully matched study showed the intestinal microbiota composition to correlate with RV1 seroconversion in Pakistan infants, identifying signatures shared with healthy Dutch infants.Peer reviewe

    Health Outcomes and Cost-effectiveness of Monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

    Get PDF
    Importance: Pre-exposure prophylaxis with neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs PrEP) prevents infection and reduces hospitalizations and the duration thereof for COVID-19 and death among high-risk individuals. However, reduced effectiveness due to a changing SARS-CoV-2 viral landscape and high drug prices remain substantial implementation barriers. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of mAbs PrEP as COVID-19 PrEP. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this economic evaluation, a decision analytic model was developed and parameterized with health care outcome and utilization data from individuals with high risk for COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 infection probability, mAbs PrEP effectiveness, and drug pricing were varied. All costs were collected from a third-party payer perspective. Data were analyzed from September 2021 to December 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Health care outcomes including new SARS-CoV-2 infections, hospitalization, and deaths. The cost per death averted and cost-effectiveness ratios using a threshold for prevention interventions of 22000orlessperqualityadjustedlifeyear(QALY)gained.Results:Theclinicalcohortconsistedof636individualswithCOVID19(mean[SD]age63[18]years;341[5422000 or less per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results: The clinical cohort consisted of 636 individuals with COVID-19 (mean [SD] age 63 [18] years; 341 [54%] male). Most individuals were at high risk for severe COVID-19, including 137 (21%) with a body mass index of 30 or higher, 60 (9.4%) with hematological malignant neoplasm, 108 (17%) post-transplantation, and 152 (23.9%) who used immunosuppressive medication before COVID-19. Within the context of a high (18%) SARS-CoV-2 infection probability and low (25%) effectiveness the model calculated a short-term reduction of 42% ward admissions, 31% intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and 34% deaths. Cost-saving scenarios were obtained with drug prices of 275 and 75% or higher effectiveness. With a 100% effectiveness mAbs PrEP can reduce ward admissions by 70%, ICU admissions by 97%, and deaths by 92%. Drug prices, however, need to reduce to 550forcosteffectivenessratioslessthan550 for cost-effectiveness ratios less than 22000 per QALY gained per death averted and to 2200forratiosbetween2200 for ratios between 22000 and 88000.ConclusionsandRelevance:Inthisstudy,useofmAbsPrEPforpreventingSARSCoV2infectionswascostsavingatthebeginningofanepidemicwave(highinfectionprobability)with7588000. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, use of mAbs PrEP for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections was cost-saving at the beginning of an epidemic wave (high infection probability) with 75% or higher effectiveness and drug price of 275. These results are timely and relevant for decision-makers involved in mAbs PrEP implementation. When newer mAbs PrEP combinations become available, guidance on implementation should be formulated ensuring a fast rollout. Nevertheless, advocacy for mAbs PrEP use and critical discussion on drug prices are necessary to ensuring cost-effectiveness for different epidemic settings.</p

    Expression and Function of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Melioidosis

    Get PDF
    Melioidosis is a severe tropical infection caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. pseudomallei is the major cause of community-acquired septicemia in northeast Thailand with a mortality rate in severe cases of around 40% Little is known, however, about the mechanisms of the host defense to B. pseudomallei infection. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has emerged as an important mediator of the host defense in severe bacterial infections. In this article, we studied the expression and function of MIF both in patients with melioidosis and in mice during experimental melioidosis. We found that MIF concentrations were elevated in patients with melioidosis. Furthermore, high MIF concentrations are associated with poor outcome in patients with melioidosis. Also, in mice with experimentally induced melioidosis, we observed an upregulation of MIF concentrations. Furthermore, mice with melioidosis that were treated with a MIF blocking treatment showed lower bacterial counts in their lungs during infection. In conclusion, MIF seems to impair host defense mechanisms during melioidosis

    High-dimensional phenotyping of the peripheral immune response in community-acquired pneumonia

    Get PDF
    BackgroundCommunity-acquired pneumonia (CAP) represents a major health burden worldwide. Dysregulation of the immune response plays an important role in adverse outcomes in patients with CAP.MethodsWe analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 36-color spectral flow cytometry in adult patients hospitalized for CAP (n=40), matched control subjects (n=31), and patients hospitalized for COVID-19 (n=35).ResultsWe identified 86 immune cell metaclusters, 19 of which (22.1%) were differentially abundant in patients with CAP versus matched controls. The most notable differences involved classical monocyte metaclusters, which were more abundant in CAP and displayed phenotypic alterations reminiscent of immunosuppression, increased susceptibility to apoptosis, and enhanced expression of chemokine receptors. Expression profiles on classical monocytes, driven by CCR7 and CXCR5, divided patients with CAP into two clusters with a distinct inflammatory response and disease course. The peripheral immune response in patients with CAP was highly similar to that in patients with COVID-19, but increased CCR7 expression on classical monocytes was only present in CAP.ConclusionCAP is associated with profound cellular changes in blood that mainly relate to classical monocytes and largely overlap with the immune response detected in COVID-19

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 Impairs host defense in experimental melioidosis

    Get PDF
    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) -1 and TREM-2 are key regulators of the inflammatory response that are involved in the clearance of invading pathogens. Melioidosis, caused by the "Tier 1" biothreat agent Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a common form of community-acquired sepsis in Southeast-Asia. TREM-1 has been suggested as a biomarker for sepsis and melioidosis. We aimed to characterize the expression and function of TREM-1 and TREM-2 in melioidosis.Wild-type, TREM-1/3 (Trem-1/3-/-) and TREM-2 (Trem-2-/-) deficient mice were intranasally infected with live B. pseudomallei and killed after 24, and/or 72 h for the harvesting of lungs, liver, spleen, and blood. Additionally, survival studies were performed. Cellular functions were further analyzed by stimulation and/or infection of isolated cells. TREM-1 and TREM-2 expression was increased both in the lung and liver of B. pseudomallei-infected mice. Strikingly, Trem-2-/-, but not Trem-1/3-/-, mice displayed a markedly improved host defense as reflected by a strong survival advantage together with decreased bacterial loads, less inflammation and reduced organ injury. Cellular responsiveness of TREM-2, but not TREM-1, deficient blood and bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was diminished upon exposure to B. pseudomallei. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of B. pseudomallei by BMDM and alveolar macrophages were TREM-1 and TREM-2-independent.We found that TREM-2, and to a lesser extent TREM-1, plays a remarkable detrimental role in the host defense against a clinically relevant Gram-negative pathogen in mice: TREM-2 deficiency restricts the inflammatory response, thereby decreasing organ damage and mortality
    corecore