3,323 research outputs found

    Characterizations of safety in hybrid inclusions via barrier functions

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    This paper investigates characterizations of safety in terms of barrier functions for hybrid systems modeled by hybrid inclusions. After introducing an adequate definition of safety for hybrid inclusions, sufficient conditions using continuously differentiable as well as lower semicontinuous barrier functions are proposed. Furthermore, the lack of existence of autonomous and continuous barrier functions certifying safety, guides us to propose, inspired by converse Lyapunov theorems for only stability, nonautonomous barrier functions and conditions that are shown to be both necessary as well as sufficient, provided that mild regularity conditions on the system's dynamics holds

    Primary merkel cell carcinoma clinically presenting as deep oedematous mass of the groin

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    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare, polyomavirus associated, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin which is usually arising from dermal skin layers. However, the origin of MCC in the subcutaneous tissue is debatable. We report a 58-yearold female patient with an oedematous mass on her left groin that was firm in consistency and had no discoloration or other visible abnormality of the overlying skin. On histology and immunohistology the tumour was consistent with the diagnosis of MCC showing a predominant subcutanous growth pattern. Pelvic magnetic resonance tomography revealed a tumour conglomerate reaching from the subcutis of the left groin to the left paraaortal and parailiacal region indicating widespread lymphogenic metastisation. Despite complete medical work-up no other MCC primary could be detected. In conclusion, predominant subcutaneous growth pattern as well as tumour localization in the groin are uncommon features of MCC. MCC showing the aforementioned features may be associated with significant delay of diagnosis and therefore represents an unfavourable prognostic factor

    Characterization of Large Volume 3.5 x 8 inches LaBr3:Ce Detectors

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    The properties of large volume cylindrical 3.5 x 8 inches (89 mm x 203 mm) LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL photo-multiplier tube were investigated. These crystals are among the largest ones ever produced and still need to be fully characterized to determine how these detectors can be utilized and in which applications. We tested the detectors using monochromatic gamma-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing gamma rays up to 22.6 MeV; we acquired PMT signal pulses and calculated detector energy resolution and response linearity as a function of gamma-ray energy. Two different voltage dividers were coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL PMT: the Hamamatsu E1198-26, based on straightforward resistive network design, and the LABRVD, specifically designed for our large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors, which also includes active semiconductor devices. Because of the extremely high light yield of LaBr3:Ce crystals we observed that, depending on the choice of PMT, voltage divider and applied voltage, some significant deviation from the ideally proportional response of the detector and some pulse shape deformation appear. In addition, crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts affect the (measured) energy resolution especially in case of high-energy gamma rays. We also measured the time resolution of detectors with different sizes (from 1x1 inches up to 3.5x8 inches), correlating the results with both the intrinsic properties of PMTs and GEANT simulations of the scintillation light collection process. The detector absolute full energy efficiency was measured and simulated up to gamma-rays of 30 Me
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