393 research outputs found

    Bilateral lung transplantation for pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension: perioperative management and one-year follow-up

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    BackgroundBilateral lung transplantation (LuTx) remains the only established treatment for children with end-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although PAH is the second most common indication for LuTx, little is known about optimal perioperative management and midterm clinical outcomes.MethodsProspective observational study on consecutive children with PAH who underwent LuTx with scheduled postoperative VA-ECMO support at Hannover Medical School from December 2013 to June 2020.ResultsTwelve patients with PAH underwent LuTx (mean age 11.9 years; age range 1.9–17.8). Underlying diagnoses included idiopathic (n = 4) or heritable PAH (n = 4), PAH associated with congenital heart disease (n = 2), pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (n = 1), and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (n = 1). The mean waiting time was 58.5 days (range 1–220d). Three patients were bridged to LuTx on VA-ECMO. Intraoperative VA-ECMO/cardiopulmonary bypass was applied and VA-ECMO was continued postoperatively in all patients (mean ECMO-duration 185 h; range 73–363 h; early extubation). The median postoperative ventilation time was 28 h (range 17–145 h). Echocardiographic conventional and strain analysis showed that 12 months after LuTx, all patients had normal biventricular systolic function. All PAH patients are alive 2 years after LuTx (median follow-up 53 months, range 26–104 months).ConclusionLuTx in children with end-stage PAH resulted in excellent midterm outcomes (100% survival 2 years post-LuTx). Postoperative VA-ECMO facilitates early extubation with rapid gain of allograft function and sustained biventricular reverse-remodeling and systolic function after RV pressure unloading and LV volume loading

    Analysis of the human monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome and response to lipopolysaccharide provides new insights into genetic aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease

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    The FANTOM5 consortium utilised cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) to provide an unprecedented insight into transcriptional regulation in human cells and tissues. In the current study, we have used CAGE-based transcriptional profiling on an extended dense time course of the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages grown in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We propose that this system provides a model for the differentiation and adaptation of monocytes entering the intestinal lamina propria. The response to LPS is shown to be a cascade of successive waves of transient gene expression extending over at least 48 hours, with hundreds of positive and negative regulatory loops. Promoter analysis using motif activity response analysis (MARA) identified some of the transcription factors likely to be responsible for the temporal profile of transcriptional activation. Each LPS-inducible locus was associated with multiple inducible enhancers, and in each case, transient eRNA transcription at multiple sites detected by CAGE preceded the appearance of promoter-associated transcripts. LPS-inducible long non-coding RNAs were commonly associated with clusters of inducible enhancers. We used these data to re-examine the hundreds of loci associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genome-wide association studies. Loci associated with IBD were strongly and specifically (relative to rheumatoid arthritis and unrelated traits) enriched for promoters that were regulated in monocyte differentiation or activation. Amongst previously-identified IBD susceptibility loci, the vast majority contained at least one promoter that was regulated in CSF1-dependent monocyte-macrophage transitions and/or in response to LPS. On this basis, we concluded that IBD loci are strongly-enriched for monocyte-specific genes, and identified at least 134 additional candidate genes associated with IBD susceptibility from reanalysis of published GWA studies. We propose that dysregulation of monocyte adaptation to the environment of the gastrointestinal mucosa is the key process leading to inflammatory bowel disease

    Genome-wide association meta-analyses and fine-mapping elucidate pathways influencing albuminuria

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    Abstract: Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria

    New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

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    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms

    Combined searches for the production of supersymmetric top quark partners in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV