4 research outputs found

    Decoding the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes: potential risk variants and future direction for North Africa

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    IntroductionAlzheimer’s disease (AD) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are both age-associated diseases. Identification of shared genes could help develop early diagnosis and preventive strategies. Although genetic background plays a crucial role in these diseases, we noticed an underrepresentation tendency of North African populations in omics studies.Materials and methodsFirst, we conducted a comprehensive review of genes and pathways shared between T2D and AD through PubMed. Then, the function of the identified genes and variants was investigated using annotation tools including PolyPhen2, RegulomeDB, and miRdSNP. Pathways enrichment analyses were performed with g:Profiler and EnrichmentMap. Next, we analyzed variant distributions in 16 worldwide populations using PLINK2, R, and STRUCTURE software. Finally, we performed an inter-ethnic comparison based on the minor allele frequency of T2D-AD common variants.ResultsA total of 59 eligible papers were included in our study. We found 231 variants and 363 genes shared between T2D and AD. Variant annotation revealed six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a high pathogenic score, three SNPs with regulatory effects on the brain, and six SNPs with potential effects on miRNA-binding sites. The miRNAs affected were implicated in T2D, insulin signaling pathways, and AD. Moreover, replicated genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to plasma protein binding, positive regulation of amyloid fibril deposition, microglia activation, and cholesterol metabolism. Multidimensional screening performed based on the 363 shared genes showed that main North African populations are clustered together and are divergent from other worldwide populations. Interestingly, our results showed that 49 SNP associated with T2D and AD were present in North African populations. Among them, 11 variants located in DNM3, CFH, PPARG, ROHA, AGER, CLU, BDNF1, CST9, and PLCG1 genes display significant differences in risk allele frequencies between North African and other populations.ConclusionOur study highlighted the complexity and the unique molecular architecture of North African populations regarding T2D-AD shared genes. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of T2D-AD shared genes and ethnicity-specific investigation studies for a better understanding of the link behind these diseases and to develop accurate diagnoses using personalized genetic biomarkers

    The Role of Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Importance of Macro and Micronutrients in Glucose Homeostasis

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    The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Genetics and lifestyle, especially diet, are contributing factors. Analyses of macro- and micronutrient intake across global populations may help to explain their impact on glucose homeostasis and disease development. To this end, 420 Tunisians were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study of daily food consumption. Various data were collected and blood samples were drawn for biochemical assay. A 24-h recall questionnaire was obtained from participants to evaluate dietary intake. Statistical analyses were conducted using Nutrilog and R software. Biochemical analyses stratified the studied population (n = 371) into three groups: diabetics (n = 106), prediabetics (n = 192) and controls (n = 73); 49 subjects were excluded. Our results showed that Tunisians had hypercaloric diets high in carbohydrates and fat with variability in the levels of some vitamins and minerals, including riboflavin and niacin, that were statistically different among groups. The lower intake of vitamin D was associated with a greater risk of T2D. Higher vitamin A and sodium intake were associated with poor glucose homeostasis, although protein intake may improve it. In perspective, nutrigenomic studies can provide insight into problematic diets and poor eating habits and offer opportunities to analyze the effects of behavioral changes that can mitigate T2D development and progression

    Low incidence of SARS-CoV-2, risk factors of mortality and the course of illness in the French national cohort of dialysis patients

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    International audienceThe aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 disease in the French national population of dialysis patients, their course of illness and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality. Our study included all patients on dialysis recorded in the French REIN Registry in April 2020. Clinical characteristics at last follow-up and the evolution of COVID-19 illness severity over time were recorded for diagnosed cases (either suspicious clinical symptoms, characteristic signs on the chest scan or a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) for SARS-CoV-2. A total of 1,621 infected patients were reported on the REIN registry from March 16th, 2020 to May 4th, 2020. Of these, 344 died. The prevalence of COVID-19 patients varied from less than 1% to 10% between regions. The probability of being a case was higher in males, patients with diabetes, those in need of assistance for transfer or treated at a self-care unit. Dialysis at home was associated with a lower probability of being infected as was being a smoker, a former smoker, having an active malignancy, or peripheral vascular disease. Mortality in diagnosed cases (21%) was associated with the same causes as in the general population. Higher age, hypoalbuminemia and the presence of an ischemic heart disease were statistically independently associated with a higher risk of death. Being treated at a selfcare unit was associated with a lower risk. Thus, our study showed a relatively low frequency of COVID-19 among dialysis patients contrary to what might have been assumed

    Low incidence of SARS-CoV-2, risk factors of mortality and the course of illness in the French national cohort of dialysis patients

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