52,056 research outputs found

    An X-ray survey of 9 algol systems

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    The observed X-ray luminosities seen from an Einstein survey of nine Algol like systems are similar to those found by Pallavicini, et al. (1981) for single or widely separated rapidly rotating late stars, but fall an order of magnitude below those seen from RS CVn stars with similar orbital periods and spectral types. It is concluded that the X-ray emission is most probably associated with a hot coronae surrounding the secondary. Possible explanations for the lower luminosity of the Algol systems relative to the RS CVn systems are considered

    The 805s X-ray pulsar H2252-035

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    The X-ray flux from the 3.6 hr binary system H2252-035 is shown to be modulated at a period of 805s. The spectrum is consistent with either a 1.4 photon index power law or 20 keV thermal model. A 560t0r-350 eV equivalent width iron line is seen at approximately 6.7 keV. The possibility that this system contains a slowly rotating neutron star is discussed

    Space Applications of Solid State Luminescent Phenomena

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    Luminescent phenomena in interplanetary space and moon related to luminescent, thermoluminescent, and cathodoluminescent properties of terrestrial minerals and rock

    The discovery of 50 minute periodic absorption events from 4U1915-05

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    The steady flux from 4U1916-05 which undergoes periodic absorption dips every 50 minutes was demonstrated. This period represents the underlying orbital period of the system. It is suggested that variations in the depth and duration of these events are caused by a bulge in the edge of the accretion disk, at the point where the gas stream impacts the disk. The mass losing star in this system is probably a low mass white dwarf. The spectrum of the dips indicates that the metallicity of the absorbing material is at least a factor 17 below solar values

    X-ray spectroscopy of late-type stars

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    The solid state spectrometer on the Einstein Observatory determined .4 - 4.5 keV spectra for Capella, Algol and 6 RS CVn binaries. All show evidence for a bimodal distribution of emission measure with temperature with one component approximately 7 million degrees and one approximately 40 million degrees. The spread in values of both luminosity and emission measure is 10 for the low temperature component and approximately 500 for the high temperature component. Line emission due to Fe can be identified in most of them and abundances of Si, S and Fe are consistent with approximately solar values in all cases. Estimates indicate dimensions of the emitting regions are on the order of the stellar size and the binary separation for the low and high temperature components, respectively, unless the pressures are high. Variations in the flux were observed, mostly in the hard component for the RS CVn binaries, in the soft component for Capella. A flare was observed during primary eclipse of Algol. The possibility is discussed that the other variations could all be due to intrinsic variability with a time scale of hours-days rather than eclipse or modulation with photometric phase

    Accretion disk coronae

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    Recent observations of partial X-ray eclipses from 4U1822-37 have shown that the central X-ray source in this system is diffused by a large Compton-thick accretion disk corona (ADC). Another binary, 4U2129-47, also displays a partial eclipse and contains an ADC. The possible origin of an ADC is discussed and a simple hydrostatic evaporated ADC model is developed which, when applied to 4U1822-37, 4U2129+47 and Cyg X-3, can explain their temporal and spectral properties. The quasi-sinusoidal modulation of all three sources can be reconciled with the partial occultation of the ADC by a bulge at the edge of the accretion disk which is caused by the inflowing material. The height of this bulge is an order of magnitude larger than the hydrostatic disk height and is the result of turbulence in the outer region of the disk. The spectral properties of all three sources can be understood in terms of Compton scattering of the original source spectrum by the ADC. Spectral variations with epoch in Cyg X-3 are probably caused by changes in the optical depth of the corona. A consequence of our model is that any accreting neutron star X-ray source in a semi-detached binary system which is close to its Eddington limit most likely contains an optically thick ADC

    The strength and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck in salmon suggests a conserved mechanism in vertebrates

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    In most species mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited maternally in an apparently clonal fashion, although how this is achieved remains uncertain. Population genetic studies show not only that individuals can harbor more than one type of mtDNA (heteroplasmy) but that heteroplasmy is common and widespread across a diversity of taxa. Females harboring a mixture of mtDNAs may transmit varying proportions of each mtDNA type (haplotype) to their offspring. However, mtDNA variants are also observed to segregate rapidly between generations despite the high mtDNA copy number in the oocyte, which suggests a genetic bottleneck acts during mtDNA transmission. Understanding the size and timing of this bottleneck is important for interpreting population genetic relationships and for predicting the inheritance of mtDNA based disease, but despite its importance the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Empirical studies, restricted to mice, have shown that the mtDNA bottleneck could act either at embryogenesis, oogenesis or both. To investigate whether the size and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck is conserved between distant vertebrates, we measured the genetic variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy at three developmental stages (female, ova and fry) in chinook salmon and applied a new mathematical model to estimate the number of segregating units (N(e)) of the mitochondrial bottleneck between each stage. Using these data we estimate values for mtDNA Ne of 88.3 for oogenesis, and 80.3 for embryogenesis. Our results confirm the presence of a mitochondrial bottleneck in fish, and show that segregation of mtDNA variation is effectively complete by the end of oogenesis. Considering the extensive differences in reproductive physiology between fish and mammals, our results suggest the mechanism underlying the mtDNA bottleneck is conserved in these distant vertebrates both in terms of it magnitude and timing. This finding may lead to improvements in our understanding of mitochondrial disorders and population interpretations using mtDNA data

    The MXB1916-053/4U1915-05: Burst properties and constraints on a 50 minute binary secondary

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    Results are presented from OSO-8 and HEAO-1 A2 observations of 34 bursts from the X-ray burster MXB1916-053/4U1915-05 recently discovered to show a 50 minute binary period. While 11 burst previously reported all had similar light curves, 22 observed two years later show a factor of 3 range of peak fluxes and decay times between 3 and 20 s. Recurrence times between successive bursts vary between 3 and 6 hours. A ratio of steady flux to average burst flux of equiv 120 is developed. A burst observed with the HEAO-1 A2 experiment showed an initial temperature rise to a peak black body temperature of equiv 3 keV followed by the cooling typical of type I bursts. The burst was unusual in that the apparent projected size of a blackbody source increased by a factor of 3 during the cooling phase

    Confirmation of the 62 Day X-Ray Periodicity from M82

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    Using 400 days of new X-ray monitoring of M82, we confirm the 62 day periodicity previously reported. In the full data set spanning 1124 days, we find a period of 62.0 +/- 0.3 days and a coherence, Q = 22.3, that is consistent with a strictly periodic signal. We estimate that the probability of chance occurrence of our observed signal is 6E-7. The light curve folded at this period is roughly sinusoidal and has a peak to peak amplitude of (0.99 +/- 0.10) x 10^-11 erg cm^-2 s^-1. Confirmation of the periodicity strengthens our previous suggestion that the 62 day modulation is due to orbital motion within an X-ray binary.Comment: 4 pages, to appear in Ap

    Linking individual behaviour to community scale patterns in fungi

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    The fungi comprise a separate kingdom of life and epitomise the indeterminate growth form. Very little is known about the factors that influence the nature of fungal diversity and the link between individual behaviour and the structure and function of fungal communities is particularly poorly understood. Here, we present a theoretical framework that is capable of elucidating this link. An individual-based model for fungal community dynamics is introduced that has been developed from a physiologically based model for the fungal phenotype. The model is used to explore the role of individual interactions, the production of an external inhibitor field and the quality of the external environment on the structure and diversity of the resulting community. We show that traits relating to growth rate, autophagic behaviour and the production of inhibitors are key in influencing the success of a particular genotype in a community. The species richness increases with the amount of available resource. This is the first model of fungal community dynamics that introduces the concept of a biomass-based abundance distribution function that can be described by the log-normal form which typically corresponds to communities in equilibrium. The species abundance curve was stable to changes in the relative location of inocula, although the ranked abundance of the individuals was not. We present the first attempt to identify the traits that affect the form of that curve. Future studies should examine the role of environmental heterogeneity and spore dispersal
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