2,988 research outputs found

    Pre- and postprocessing techniques for determining goodness of computational meshes

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    Research in error estimation, mesh conditioning, and solution enhancement for finite element, finite difference, and finite volume methods has been incorporated into AUDITOR, a modern, user-friendly code, which operates on 2D and 3D unstructured neutral files to improve the accuracy and reliability of computational results. Residual error estimation capabilities provide local and global estimates of solution error in the energy norm. Higher order results for derived quantities may be extracted from initial solutions. Within the X-MOTIF graphical user interface, extensive visualization capabilities support critical evaluation of results in linear elasticity, steady state heat transfer, and both compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics

    Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas

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    We present time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in an ultracold gas, revealing the pair dynamics induced by long-range van der Waals interactions between the atoms. By detuning the excitation laser, a specific pair distribution is prepared. Penning ionization on a microsecond timescale serves as a probe for the pair dynamics under the influence of the attractive long-range forces. Comparison with a Monte Carlo model not only explains all spectroscopic features but also gives quantitative information about the interaction potentials. The results imply that the interaction-induced ionization rate can be influenced by the excitation laser. Surprisingly, interaction-induced ionization is also observed for Rydberg states with purely repulsive interactions

    Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance.

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    Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction

    Simon-Task Reveals Balanced Visuomotor Control in Experienced Video-Game Players

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    Both short and long-term video-game play may result in superior performance on visual and attentional tasks. To further these findings, we compared the performance of experienced male video-game players (VGPs) and non-VGPs on a Simon-task. Experienced-VGPs began playing before the age of 10, had a minimum of 8 years of experience and a minimum play time of over 20 h per week over the past 6 months. Our results reveal a significantly reduced Simon-effect in experienced-VGPs relative to non-VGPs. However, this was true only for the right-responses, which typically show a greater Simon-effect than left-responses. In addition, experienced-VGPs demonstrated significantly quicker reaction times and more balanced left-versus-right-hand performance than non-VGPs. Our results suggest that experienced-VGPs can resolve response-selection conflicts more rapidly for right-responses than non-VGPs, and this may in part be underpinned by improved bimanual motor control

    Gene Deletion of the Kinin Receptor B1 Attenuates Cardiac Inflammation and Fibrosis During the Development of Experimental Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

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    Objective: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with increased mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. The underlying pathology of this disease is still under discussion. We studied the role of the kinin B1 receptor on the development of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy. Research Design and Methods: We utilized B1 receptor knockout mice and investiged cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress after induction of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the left ventricular function was measured by pressure-volume loops after 8 weeks of diabetes mellitus. Results: B1 receptor knockout mice showed an attenuation of diabetic cardiomyopathy with improved systolic and diastolic function in comparison with diabetic control mice. This was associated with a decreased activation state of the MAP kinase p38, less oxidative stress as well as normalized cardiac inflammation, shown by fewer invading cells and, no increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 as well as the chemokine CXCL-5. Furthermore, the pro-fibrotic connective tissue growth factor was normalized, leading to a reduction in cardiac fibrosis despite severe hyperglycemia in mice lacking the B1 receptor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the B1 receptor is detrimental in diabetic cardiomyopathy in that it mediates inflammatory and fibrotic processes. These insights might have useful implications on future studies utilizing B1 receptor antagonists for treatment of human diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Neurotransmitter patterns in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)

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