1,982 research outputs found

    Equivalent Circuit Model of High-Performance VCSELs

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    In this work, a general equivalent circuit model based on the carrier reservoir splitting approach in high-performance multi-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. This model accurately describes the intrinsic dynamic behavior of these VCSELs for the case where the lasing modes do not share a common carrier reservoir. Moreover, this circuit model is derived from advanced multi-mode rate equations that take into account the effect of spatial hole-burning, gain compression, and inhomogeneity in the carrier distribution between the lasing mode ensembles. The validity of the model is confirmed through simulation of the intrinsic modulation response of these lasers.DFG, 43659573, SFB 787: Halbleiter - Nanophotonik: Materialien, Modelle, BauelementeDFG, 414044773, Open Access Publizieren 2019 - 2020 / Technische Universität Berli

    H.E.S.S. highlights

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    H.E.S.S. has been in full operation since December 2003 and has provided a wealth of exciting new results from the survey of the Galactic plane at VHE energies, and on VHE gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants, binary systems and pulsar wind nebulae. New results are also reported for Galactic center sources and for distant extragalactic sources, the latter implying novel constraints on the level of extragalactic background

    Very-High Energy Gamma-Ray Flux Limits for Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei

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    Combining the results of targeted observations, H.E.S.S. has accumulated a large amount of extra-galactic exposure at TeV energies. Due to its large field of view a considerable part of the sky (0.6 sr) has been observed with high sensitivity outside the targeted observation positions. Since this exposure region contains little inherent bias, it is well suited for studies of extra-galactic source populations. Given the correlation between ultra-high energy cosmic rays and nearby extra-galactic objects recently claimed by the Auger collaboration, this unbiased sky sample by H.E.S.S. is of interest since it includes (besides the targeted sources) 63 AGN within 100 Mpc, for which very-high energy gamma-ray flux limits are derived.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, Submitted to Proceedings of "4th International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy 2008

    Implications of the VHE Gamma-Ray Detection of the Quasar 3C279

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    The MAGIC collaboration recently reported the detection of the quasar 3C279 at > 100 GeV gamma-ray energies. Here we present simultaneous optical (BVRI) and X-ray (RXTE PCA) data from the day of the VHE detection and discuss the implications of the snap-shot spectral energy distribution for jet models of blazars. A one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton origin of the entire SED, including the VHE gamma-ray emission can be ruled out. The VHE emission could, in principle, be interpreted as Compton upscattering of external radiation (e.g., from the broad-line regions). However, such an interpretation would require either an unusually low magnetic field of B ~ 0.03 G or an unrealistically high Doppler factor of Gamma ~ 140. In addition, such a model fails to reproduce the observed X-ray flux. This as well as the lack of correlated variability in the optical with the VHE gamma-ray emission and the substantial gamma-gamma opacity of the BLR radiation field to VHE gamma-rays suggests a multi-zone model. In particular, an SSC model with an emission region far outside the BLR reproduces the simultaneous X-ray -- VHE gamma-ray spectrum of 3C279. Alternatively, a hadronic model is capable of reproducing the observed SED of 3C279 reasonably well. However, the hadronic model requires a rather extreme jet power of L_j ~ 10^{49} erg s^{-1}, compared to a requirement of L_j ~ 2 X 10^{47} erg s^{-1} for a multi-zone leptonic model.Comment: Accepted for pulication. Several clarifications and additions to the manuscript to match the accepted versio

    Multiwavelength Signatures of Cosmic Ray Acceleration by Young Supernova Remnants

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    An overview is given of multiwavelength observations of young supernova remnants, with a focus on the observational signatures of efficient cosmic ray acceleration. Some of the effects that may be attributed to efficient cosmic ray acceleration are the radial magnetic fields in young supernova remnants, magnetic field amplification as determined with X-ray imaging spectroscopy, evidence for large post-shock compression factors, and low plasma temperatures, as measured with high resolution optical/UV/X-ray spectroscopy. Special emphasis is given to spectroscopy of post-shock plasma's, which offers an opportunity to directly measure the post-shock temperature. In the presence of efficient cosmic ray acceleration the post-shock temperatures are expected to be lower than according to standard equations for a strong shock. For a number of supernova remnants this seems indeed to be the case.Comment: Invited review, to appear in the proceedings of "4th Heidelberg International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy 2008

    Hadronic Production of Gamma Rays and Starburst Galaxies

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    The Milky Way has been estabished to emit gamma rays. These gamma rays are presumably dominated by decays of neutral pions, although inverse Compton scatterings and bremsstrahlung also contribute. It is plausible that other galaxies can be diffuse sources of gamma rays in a similar manner. Starburst galaxies are particularly interesting to study as they are expected to have much higher cosmic-ray fluxes and interstellar matter densities. The neutral pions are created in cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar matter. Presented here is an overview of the recent work by Karlsson and co-workers on proton-proton interactions and the resulting secondary particle inclusive cross sections and angular distributions. This model can be used to calculated the π0\pi^{0} component of the gamma-ray yield and spectrum from a starburst galaxy. The yield is expected to increase significantly (30% to 50%) and the spectrum to be harder than the incident proton spectrum.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, submitted for the Proceedings of the 4th Heidelberg International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy, July 7-11, 2008, in Heidelberg, German

    Galactic and Extragalactic Magnetic Fields

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    The strength of the total magnetic field in our Milky Way from radio Zeeman and synchrotron measurements is about 6 muG near the Sun and several mG in dense clouds, pulsar wind nebulae, and filaments near the Galactic Center. Diffuse polarized radio emission and Faraday rotation of the polarized emission from pulsars and background sources show many small-scale magnetic features, but the overall field structure in our Galaxy is still under debate. -- Radio synchrotron observations of nearby galaxies reveal dynamically important magnetic fields of 10-30 muG total strength in the spiral arms. Fields with random orientations are concentrated in spiral arms, while ordered fields (observed in radio polarization) are strongest in interarm regions and follow the orientation of the adjacent gas spiral arms. Faraday rotation of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of spiral galaxies sometimes reveals large-scale patterns which are signatures of coherent fields generated by dynamos, but in most galaxies the field structure is more complicated. -- Strong magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies, out to large distances from the plane. The synchrotron scaleheight of radio halos allows to measure the mean outflow velocity of the cosmic-ray electrons. The ordered halo fields mostly form an X-shaped pattern, but no large-scale pattern is seen in the Faraday rotation data. Diffuse polarized radio emission in the outer disks and halos is an excellent tracer of galaxy interactions and ram pressure by the intergalactic medium. -- Intracluster gas can also be significantly magnetized and highly polarized due to shocks or cluster mergers.Comment: 14 pages, 14 figures. To be published in "High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy", eds. F.A. Aharonian, W. Hofmann, and F.M. Rieger, AIP Conf. Proc. Updated and added references 28/11/2008; typo corrected and references updated 07/01/2009; typos corrected 12/01/200

    The Comparison of the Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts With and Without Measured Redshifts

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    Gamma-ray bursts, detected by the Swift satellite, are separated into two samples: the bursts with and without determined redshifts. These two samples are compared by the standard Student t-test and F-test. We have compared the dispersions and the mean values of the durations, peak fluxes and fluences in order to find any differences among these two samples. No essential differences were found.Comment: Published in the Proceedings of the 4th Heidelberg International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy, 200

    Non-linear relationship of cell hit and transformation probabilities in a low dose of inhaled radon progenies

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    Cellular hit probabilities of alpha particles emitted by inhaled radon progenies in sensitive bronchial epithelial cell nuclei were simulated at low exposure levels to obtain useful data for the rejection or support of the linear-non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis. In this study, local distributions of deposited inhaled radon progenies in airway bifurcation models were computed at exposure conditions characteristic of homes and uranium mines. Then, maximum local deposition enhancement factors at bronchial airway bifurcations, expressed as the ratio of local to average deposition densities, were determined to characterise the inhomogeneity of deposition and to elucidate their effect on resulting hit probabilities. The results obtained suggest that in the vicinity of the carinal regions of the central airways the probability of multiple hits can be quite high, even at low average doses. Assuming a uniform distribution of activity there are practically no multiple hits and the hit probability as a function of dose exhibits a linear shape in the low dose range. The results are quite the opposite in the case of hot spots revealed by realistic deposition calculations, where practically all cells receive multiple hits and the hit probability as a function of dose is non-linear in the average dose range of 10–100 mGy

    Gamma rays from compact binary system

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    Some of the very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources detected with the modern generation of Cherenkov telescopes have been identified with previously known X-ray binary systems. These detections demonstrate the richness of non-thermal phenomena in compact galactic objects containing relativistic outflows or winds produced near black holes and neutron stars. Recently, the well-known microquasar Cygnus X-3 seems to be associated with a gamma-ray source detected with AGILE. Here I summarise the main observational results on gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, as well as some of the proposed scenarios to explain the production of VHE gamma-rays.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures. Invited talk at the "Fourth Heidelberg International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy 2008
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