4 research outputs found

    The Role of Electron–Hole Separation in Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Donor–Acceptor Blends

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    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) is becoming an increasingly important OLED technology that extracts light from nonemissive triplet states via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) to the bright singlet state. Here we present the rather surprising finding that in TADF materials that contain a mixture of donor and acceptor molecules the electron–hole separation fluctuates as a function of time. By performing time-resolved photoluminescence experiments, both with and without a magnetic field, we observe that at short times the TADF dynamics are insensitive to magnetic field, but a large magnetic field effect (MFE) occurs at longer times. We explain these observations by constructing a quantum mechanical rate model in which the electron and hole cycle between a near-neighbor exciplex state that shows no MFE and a separated polaron-pair state that is not emissive but does show magnetic field dependent dynamics. Interestingly, the model suggests that only a portion of TADF in these blends comes from direct RISC from triplet to singlet exciplex. A substantial contribution comes from an indirect path, where the electron and hole separate, undergo RISC from hyperfine interactions, and then recombine to form a bright singlet exciplex. These observations have a significant impact on the design rules for TADF materials, as they imply a separate set of electronic parameters that can influence efficiency

    Ion-Switchable Quantum Dot Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Rates in Ratiometric Potassium Sensors

    No full text
    The tools for optically imaging cellular potassium concentrations in real-time are currently limited to a small set of molecular indicator dyes. Quantum dot-based nanosensors are more photostable and tunable than organic indicators, but previous designs have fallen short in size, sensitivity, and selectivity. Here, we introduce a small, sensitive, and selective nanosensor for potassium measurements. A dynamic quencher modulates the fluorescence emitted by two different quantum dot species to produce a ratiometric signal. We characterized the potassium-modulated sensor properties and investigated the photonic interactions within the sensors. The quencher’s protonation changes in response to potassium, which modulates its Förster radiative energy transfer rate and the corresponding interaction radii with each quantum dot species. The nanosensors respond to changes in potassium concentrations typical of the cellular environment and thus provide a promising tool for imaging potassium fluxes during biological events

    Ion-Switchable Quantum Dot Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Rates in Ratiometric Potassium Sensors

    No full text
    The tools for optically imaging cellular potassium concentrations in real-time are currently limited to a small set of molecular indicator dyes. Quantum dot-based nanosensors are more photostable and tunable than organic indicators, but previous designs have fallen short in size, sensitivity, and selectivity. Here, we introduce a small, sensitive, and selective nanosensor for potassium measurements. A dynamic quencher modulates the fluorescence emitted by two different quantum dot species to produce a ratiometric signal. We characterized the potassium-modulated sensor properties and investigated the photonic interactions within the sensors. The quencher’s protonation changes in response to potassium, which modulates its Förster radiative energy transfer rate and the corresponding interaction radii with each quantum dot species. The nanosensors respond to changes in potassium concentrations typical of the cellular environment and thus provide a promising tool for imaging potassium fluxes during biological events

    Ion-Switchable Quantum Dot Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Rates in Ratiometric Potassium Sensors

    No full text
    The tools for optically imaging cellular potassium concentrations in real-time are currently limited to a small set of molecular indicator dyes. Quantum dot-based nanosensors are more photostable and tunable than organic indicators, but previous designs have fallen short in size, sensitivity, and selectivity. Here, we introduce a small, sensitive, and selective nanosensor for potassium measurements. A dynamic quencher modulates the fluorescence emitted by two different quantum dot species to produce a ratiometric signal. We characterized the potassium-modulated sensor properties and investigated the photonic interactions within the sensors. The quencher’s protonation changes in response to potassium, which modulates its Förster radiative energy transfer rate and the corresponding interaction radii with each quantum dot species. The nanosensors respond to changes in potassium concentrations typical of the cellular environment and thus provide a promising tool for imaging potassium fluxes during biological events
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