2,389 research outputs found

    Traffic scenario generation technique for piloted simulation studies

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    Piloted simulation studies of cockpit traffic display concepts require the development of representative traffic scenarios. With the exception of specific aircraft interaction issues, most research questions can be addressed using traffic scenarios consisting of prerecorded aircraft movements merged together to form a desired traffic pattern. Prerecorded traffic scenarios have distinct research advantages, allowing control of traffic encounters with repeatability of scenarios between different test subjects. A technique is described for generation of prerecorded jet transport traffic scenarios suitable for use in piloted simulation studies. Individual flight profiles for the aircraft in the scenario are created interactively with a computer program designed specifically for this purpose. The profiles are then time-correlated and merged into a complete scenario. This technique was used to create traffic scenarios for the Denver, Colorado area with operations centered at Stapleton International Airport. Traffic scenarios for other areas may also be created using this technique, with appropriate modifications made to the navigation fix locations contained in the flight profile generation program

    Improving Health Care through Community Collaboration: A Win-Win Partnership

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    Improving Health Care through Community Collaboration: A Win-Win Partnership Douglas Wells, Research Scholar Mentors: Sweety Jain, MD, Melanie Johnson, MPA Abstract Community-based health partnerships generally comprise of health care professionals and community leaders who utilize their combined expertise and resources to achieve a common goal of improving population health. The Medical Home Project (MHP) is one such partnership that focuses on improving the quality of care for patients with disabilities. It has been working as a collaborative team for almost ten years and has often used focus group discussions for assessing its structure and function. Recently, the Partnership Self-Assessment Survey, a formal tool designed to assess the collaboration of partnerships was utilized. Nineteen MHP members completed the survey with a 95% completion rate. Analysis of the results showed that synergy, leadership, efficiency, and administration/management were the areas where the partnership is most sufficient. Non-financial and financial/capital resources are the areas where improvement is needed. 65% of the respondents feel the benefits of participating on this team greatly exceed the drawbacks. Overall, members are mostly satisfied with their involvement with the partnership as well as with its progress. This data is very useful in proving the efficacy of this team and also in providing direction to the efforts. The model of MHP can be utilized for other community based health care partnerships and the PSAT tool is something the team leaders should keep in mind when they need to assess the effectiveness of their teams. As for MHP, the next steps will be to move towards affecting public policy, finding sustainable funding sources, and keeping the members aware of the funding needs and availability as the case may be. Background In today’s health care system, there are clear disparities in the health care for vulnerable populations. As more underserved populations such as those with chronic diseases are becoming recognized, health and other public community organizations are exploring opportunities for collaboration with each other to proactively eliminate these gaps in health care1. This has caused partnerships to be increasingly viewed as “essential” in order to reduce the disparities in their communities2. However, a reliable way to evaluate how well the collaborative process works within these partnerships to determine their overall effectiveness is still needed3. In 2008, a report by the ARC of Massachusetts showed focus group data that revealed health care professionals lack experience and sufficient training in caring for patients with disabilities4. The Medical Home Project (MHP) is a partnership of community leaders and advocacy agents committed to improving health care for these patients with disabilities5. They carry out this mission through the education of medical personnel on respectful communication, etiquette, and knowledge of community resources for these patients. MHP has been collaboratively working together for almost ten years but lack an evaluative measure outside of their focus groups assessments. Methodology One strategy the Medical Home Project has explored to better evaluate the partnership is using the Partnership Self-Assessment Tool (PSAT). PSAT is a survey created by the Center for the Advancement of Collaborative Strategies in Health to help partnerships assess and understand how their collaboration works as well as identifies specific areas for improvement. There are 67 questions for nine areas of assessment and they are as follows: synergy, leadership, efficiency, administration/management, non-financial resources, financial/capital resources, benefits and drawbacks, decision making, and overall satisfaction. The areas are given an assessment zone based on the scores which gives an idea of how well the partnership is performing in that area. Twenty members of MHP were given the PSAT in paper format and required to return the survey within thirty days. The time frame for returns was from June 2nd until July 2nd. The tool requires that surveys are returned anonymously and at least 65% of them should be completed in order to analyze the results. Anonymity was maintained by having members mail in the surveys without putting their return addresses on the envelopes. One electronic message was sent to all members half way through the time frame reminding them to send in their surveys. The results are analyzed using the PSAT report tool. (See link from reference 3) Results The survey elicited the participation from all but one member for a 95% return and completion rate. Synergy, leadership, efficiency, and administration/management all received scores within the “headway” zone. This means that the partnership is doing well, but still has room for improvement in these areas. Non-financial and financial/capital resources has scores in the “work” zone which means more effort is needed to maximize the potential in these areas. The lowest overall score is 3.69 for financial/capital resources and the highest overall score is 4.53 for efficiency. In the benefits and drawbacks area, there are questions in which 100% of the members received those benefits as a result of participating in the partnership. These include having an enhanced ability to address important issues, an acquisition of useful knowledge and resources in the community, ability to contribute to the community, and most importantly, all members feel they could make a greater impact with the partnership than they could on their own. As for the drawbacks, no members believe they are viewed negatively due to their involvement with the partnership. However, 53% of the members did report they feel a diversion of their time and resources away from their everyday obligations as a result of working with MHP. Overall, 65% of the respondents replied that the benefits greatly exceed the drawbacks. Members responded that they are satisfied with the decision making process. Twelve out of the nineteen participants reported being extremely comfortable with how the decisions are being made in the partnership. Twelve participants also said they support all of the decisions made by MHP. Eleven believe they are never excluded from the decisions being made. For the satisfaction assessment, members reported they were mostly satisfied overall with their involvement in the MHP as well as how MHP works as a partnership. Discussion A partnership that consists of community leaders working towards a mission of improving health care for patients with disabilities, and has been functioning for almost ten years, one would believe the partnership is working well. This study has exemplified that indeed it does work well. Areas of greatest sufficiency are efficiency and leadership. Based on the data, these areas had the potential to be even better because there are two individuals who gave significantly lower scores than the other members in both of these sections. Their responses could not have been taken out as outliers due to the small sample size. This is a limitation of the study. Because MHP is a smaller partnership and the results for each section from each member are averaged, each respondent has a significant effect on the overall score. Therefore, the two members who are not completely satisfied with these areas of the partnership caused a lower result. We can also see that non-financial and financial/capital resources are the areas needing the most improvement. However, the scores from these sections may be lower due to the design of the survey, which is a clear limitation of the study. PSAT was designed for multiple partnerships, and thus, not all questions are completely relevant for MHP. For example, one question assess whether or not the partnership has adequate funds, but because of the type of group MHP is, they do not always need funds and when they do, they receive them through grants. This would be different for a partnership with a constant flux of revenue. Thus, scores can be lower or higher depending how relevant the question is to the partnership. The assessment of the overall satisfaction revealed that members are mostly satisfied with the partnership and their involvement. It is also notable that all members reported feeling they are able to have a greater impact on the community with the partnership then they would have on their own. Surveying patients, their families, and medical practices on MHP’s impact would provide a better idea of the overall effectiveness to their mission. Also, looking at MHP’s results on PSAT in comparison to similar partnerships and assessment tools would be useful to see how well MHP works compared to other partnerships. The Medical Home Project is a model partnership that is applicable in other settings. Whether it is for chronic diseases such as COPD or other vulnerable populations, communities can create partnerships similar to MHP to advocate to improving care for these individuals. It is clear that the Medical Home Project is a successful partnership and should continue to carry out their mission to improve health care for patients with disabilities. References Plumb, J., Weinsten, L.C., Brawer, R., and Scott, K. (2012) Community-Based Partnerships for Improving Chronic Disease Management. Department of Family & Community Medicine Faculty Papers. Paper 29. http://jdc.jefferson.edu/fmfp/29 Zahner S.J., Oliver T.R., Siemering K.Q. (2014) The Mobilizing Action Toward Community Health Partnership Study: Multisector in US Counties with Improving Health Metrics. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130103. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130103 Center for the Advancement of Collaborative Strategies in Health. (2002). Partnership Self-Assessment Tool Questionnaire. Retrieved October 2008 from http://partnershiptool.net/ Nichols, A.D., et al. (2008) Left Out in the Cold: Health Care Experiences of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in Massachusetts. Jain, S., Grady, K. Medical Education and Health Care: The Role of The ARC in a Unique Partnership [PDF document]. Retrieved from: http://www.thearc.org/document.doc?id=4374index.htm

    NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

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    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used

    Critical success factors for OSINT Driven Situational Awareness

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    A critical element of successful intelligence-led law enforcement operations is the ability of the police and other security services to obtain timely, reliable and actionable intelligence concerning the problem, incident or investigation under focus. As well as traditional investigative techniques and information sources, open-source intelligence (OSINT) can provide additional capabilities for Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) to manage an investigation or address the intelligence requirements of a given incident. This position paper introduces the concept of OSINT, identifies and discusses existing effective practices and critical success factors for the fusion of OSINT with traditional intelligence sources. This paper is written as a position piece based upon CENTRIC operational involvement in 14 UK based LEA open source investigations over the years 2015 to 2017

    OSINT from a UK perspective: considerations from the law enforcement and military domains

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    Both law enforcement and the military have incorporated the use of open source intelligence (OSINT) into their daily operations. Whilst there are observable similarities in how these organisations employ OSINT there are also differences between military and policing approaches towards the understanding of open source information and the goals for the intelligence gathered from it. In particular, we focus on evaluating potential similarities and differences between understandings and approaches of operational OSINT between British law enforcement agencies and UK based MoD researchers and investigators. These observations are gathered towards the aim of increasing interoperability as well as creating opportunities for specific strengths and competencies of particular organisational approaches to be shared and utilised by both the military and law enforcement

    Wing Configuration Impact on Design Optimums for a Subsonic Passenger Transport

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    This study sought to compare four aircraft wing configurations at a conceptual level using a multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) process. The MDO framework used was created by Georgia Institute of Technology and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. They created a multi-disciplinary design and optimization environment that could capture the unique features of the truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration. The four wing configurations selected for the study were a low wing cantilever installation, a high wing cantilever, a strut-braced wing, and a single jury TBW. The mission that was used for this study was a 160 passenger transport aircraft with a design range of 2,875 nautical miles at the design payload, flown at a cruise Mach number of 0.78. This paper includes discussion and optimization results for multiple design objectives. Five design objectives were chosen to illustrate the impact of selected objective on the optimization result: minimum takeoff gross weight (TOGW), minimum operating empty weight, minimum block fuel weight, maximum start of cruise lift-to-drag ratio, and minimum start of cruise drag coefficient. The results show that the design objective selected will impact the characteristics of the optimized aircraft. Although minimum life cycle cost was not one of the objectives, TOGW is often used as a proxy for life cycle cost. The low wing cantilever had the lowest TOGW followed by the strut-braced wing

    Health Profession Education to Provide Quality Care for Patients with Differing Abilities

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    Health Profession Education to Provide Quality Care for Patients with Differing Abilities Yasaira Rodriguez1 and Douglas Wells2 Sweety Jain, MD2, 3 and Judith Sabino, MPH1, 3 1Diversity/Cultural Awareness, Lehigh Valley Health Network 2Department of Family Medicine, Lehigh Valley Health Network 3Research Scholar Mentor Abstract People living with a disability, like all other individuals, have differing abilities that make them unique. However, at times, well-meaning health care professionals may lack the necessary training and experience needed to effectively care for these patients. Persons with differing abilities also face challenges in health care settings due to inaccessible equipment and services that may lead to inequitable health care. Lehigh Valley Health Network’s Medical Home Project, a group of patient, family, community and health care advisors, that seeks to improve the care of persons with disabilities through health professional education, recognized this knowledge gap and created a 32-minute video, entitled “Patient Voices” which displays appropriate techniques for treating and communicating with patients with differing abilities. In this study, 7 Lehigh Valley Health Network primary care practices (with 112 employees) received training comprised of the ”Patient Voices” video , a brief introduction to the concept of Person First Language, and comments from a Medical Home Project representative who lives with a disability. 81% of those trained completed a 7-item pre- and post-test (n=91) that assessed their knowledge on disability etiquette. Respondents had a mean pre-test score of 5.59 (s.d. = 1.265) and a mean post-test score of 6.71 (s.d. = .543). A dependent t-test between the two mean scores showed a significant difference in knowledge after participants watched the video (t (90) = 8.46, p≤.001). These data show that this educational program measurably increased staff knowledge in techniques to effectively care for persons with differing abilities. Next steps include training more primary as well as specialty practice staff members in this fashion. Keywords Disability, Patients with Disabilities As Teachers, Health Professional Education Background People living with a disability face barriers and, at times, discrimination in their everyday lives. Like all individuals, people living with a disability have differing abilities (Morchen, 2013). In the United States, approximately 56.7 million individuals are living with a disability and, of those, about 38.3 million people have a severe disability (Brault, 2013). The Americans with Disability Act of 1990 prohibits discrimination of any individual with a disability in the health care system (The American with Disability Act, 2010). Despite this legislation, people with disabilities continue to face barriers when seeking health care services, including inaccessible facilities, equipment, and communication systems (U.S Department of Human Services, 2005). Health care organizations are required to ensure accessibility and provide accommodations to provide equitable health care (Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund, 2009). Effective communication and basic etiquette are essential in patient-doctor relationship (Jain, 2013). The lack of education or exposure to persons with disabilities among health professionals may cause a disconnect between patients and their clinicians (Nichols, 2008). Studies show that less than 20% of medical schools teach their students how to communicate and care for the needs of patients in this population (Wen, 2014). First-hand experience with patients with a disability enhances the teaching effectiveness and creates credibility, creating a more receptive audience (Ende, 1983). Patients with differing abilities and their family members can provide a unique and personal perspective on their experiences. The inclusion of these individuals enables learners to connect with them in a personal way and results in greater understanding about caring for persons with differing abilities. Patients with Disabilities as Teachers Lehigh Valley Health Network (LVHN) responded to the challenges that individuals with differing abilities face in the health care setting by establishing the Medical Home Project (MHP). Comprised of persons with disabilities, their family members, community representatives and health care professionals, the MHP seeks to improve the quality of health care for individuals with disabilities by educating medical professionals about patient-centered care, respectful communication and effective coordination of community-based resources. One of the MHP’s achievements is the Patients with Disabilities as Teachers (P-DAT) program (Jain, 2013). This 3-hour educational intervention seeks to educate health care professionals about appropriate ways to interact with patients with differing abilities. The program features specially-trained individuals with disabilities (or family of an individual with disabilities) who serve as faculty, a 32-minute training video, and Person First Language tips (Person First Language emphasizes the person first not his or her disability). The training video, entitled “Patient Voices,” uses vignettes to illustrate how to effectively interacting with persons with disabilities. In this study, a modified (45-minute) P-DAT training program was designed that featured the “Patient Voices” video, brief instruction on Person First Language and audience discussion with a person living with a disability or a family member of a person living with a disability (P-DAT faculty member). Previous study A previous study conducted by LVHN/ University of South Florida medical students found that opportunities existed to enhance staff knowledge in care to patients with disabilities in 7 Lehigh Valley Physicians Group primary care practices. Methodology After IRB approval, the 45-minute modified P-DAT educational sessions were offered to the 7 previously assessed primary care practices. Practice staff participating in the education included physicians, advanced practice clinicians, nurses, ancillary staff and administrative personnel. The educational sessions included the “Patient Voices” video, conversation with P-DAT faculty, and Person First Language. A P-DAT faculty assisted in facilitating the training by sharing their personal health care experiences and answering any questions. Pre- and post-tests were distributed at the beginning of the training. The pre- and post-test consisted of the same 7 questions, which measured disability etiquette knowledge. The health care professionals were given the pre-test questions, shown the ”Patient Voices” video, and then asked to complete the post-test questions. Paired-samples two-tailed t-tests were performed to analyze pre- and post-test scores. Results A modified P-DAT training program was presented to 112 medical professionals (90% of the staff members in the 7 practices). Of these 112, 91 staff members returned completed pre- and post-tests, for an 81% response rate. Pre- and post-test scores for all completed surveys (n=91) were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Pre- and post-tests were scored based on the number of correct responses with a maximum score of 7. Respondents had a mean score of 5.59 (s.d. = 1.265) on the pre-test and a mean score of 6.71 (s.d. = .543) on the post-test. A dependent t-test of pre- and post-test scores showed a significant difference after participants watched the video (t (90) = 8.46, p≤.001). Results are consistent when analyzing the average results from each individual practice. For practice 1 (n = 19), respondents averaged a 5.79 (s.d. = 1.084) on the pre-test and a 6.74 (s.d. = .562) on the post-test. Practice 2 (n = 13), respondents averaged a 5.54 (s.d. = 1.391) on the pre-test and a 6.54 (s.d. = .660) on the post-test. Practice 3 (n = 9), respondents averaged a 6.22 (s.d. = .833) on the pre-test and a 6.78 (s.d. = .441) on the post-test. Practice 4 (n = 16), respondents averaged a 5.50 (s.d. = 1.461) on the pre-test and a 6.88 (s.d. = .342) on the post-test. Practice 5 (n = 15), respondents averaged a 5.40 (s.d. = 1.352) on the pre-test and a 6.60 (s.d. = .632) on the post-test. Practice 6 (n = 12), respondents averaged a 5.33 (s.d. = 1.497) on the pre-test and a 6.83 (s.d. = .389) on the post-test. Practice 7 (n = 7), respondents averaged a 5.43 (s.d. = .976) on the pre-test and a 6.57 (s.d. = .787) on the post-test. The post-test scores also showed less variability when compared to pre-test scores. Respondent scores ranged from a low of 2 correct answers to a high of 7 on the pre-test; the lowest score on the post-test was a 5, with a high of 7. Anecdotally, the participating health care professionals welcomed this education and appreciated feedback and recommendations from P-DAT faculty. Limitations This study faced many challenging limitations that had potential impact on this study’s results. Time limitation It was difficult scheduling the modified P-DAT training program with each practice. Finding a 45-minute time slot for the educational session was challenging given the practice’s appointment schedules. Offering refreshments (breakfast or lunch) and scheduling the sessions during these periods aided staff participation. Space limitations The primary care practices also had limited space within their locations for interactive trainings. In most cases, the training had to be scheduled in work rooms, waiting rooms, and even kitchen areas. These tight locations made it difficult for some P-DAT faculty members, especially those using wheelchairs, to easily access the training room. Survey response rate There was difficulty in having each participant complete both pre- and post-test. Some participants would come late or leave early due to patient needs and not complete both assessments. These pre- and post-test scores were excluded from the analysis. Discussion These results suggest that staff knowledge about caring for persons with disabilities increased among the 112 participants following the modified P-DAT training program. Given these findings, it is recommended that more health care professionals in primary care and specialty practices be trained using the modified P-DAT program. In the future, it is suggested that CMU/CEU credits or other incentives be offered to increase staff participation. Disseminating the results of the modified P-DAT program for replication by other health organizations is also recommended. References Brault, M. (2013). “Americans with Disabilities: 2010,” Current Population Reports (United States Census Bureau). Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund. (2009). “Improving Health and Access to Health Care”, 1-5. Ende, J. (1983). “Feedback in Clinical Medical Education. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 250.6: 777-81. Jain, S., Foster, E., Biery, N., & Boyle, V. (2013). Patients with Disabilities as Teachers. Family Medicine, 45(1), 37-39. Morchen, M., Ormsby, G., Bonn, T., & Lewis, D. (2013). “Addressing Disability in the Health System at CARITAS Takeo Eye Hospital.” Community Eye Health Journal, 26(81), 8-9. Nichols, A.D., et al. (2008). “Left Out in the Cold: Health Care Experiences of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in Massachusetts.” The Arc of Massachusetts. The Americans with Disability Act. (2010). The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Revised ADA Regulations Implementing Title II and Title III. 2010 ADA Regulations. United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, n.d. Web. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). “The Surgeon General\u27s Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities.” Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; Washington, D.C. Wen, L. (2014). “Doctors’ Ignorance Stands in the Way of Care for the Disabled.” National Public Radio. NPR 2015.

    Cruise Speed Sensitivity Study for Transonic Truss Braced Wing

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    NASA's investment and research in aviation has led to new technologies and concepts that make aircraft more efficient and environmentally friendly. One aircraft design operational concept is the reduction of cruise speed to reduce fuel burned during a mission. Although this is not a new idea, it was used by all of the contractors involved in a 2008 NASA sponsored study that solicited concept and technology ideas to reduce environmental impacts for future subsonic passenger transports. NASA is currently improving and building new analysis capabilities to analyze advanced concepts. To test some of these new capabilities, a transonic truss braced wing configuration was used as a test case. This paper examines the effects due to changes in the design cruise speed and other tradeoffs in the design space. The analysis was baselined to the Boeing SUGAR High truss braced wing concept. An optimization was run at five different design cruise Mach numbers. These designs are compared to provide an initial assessment space and the parameters that should be considered when selecting a design cruise speed. A discussion of the design drivers is also included. The results show that the wing weight in the current analysis has more influence on the takeoff gross weight than expected. This effect caused lower than expected wing sweep angle values for higher cruise speed designs

    Additive Manufacturing Machine/Process Qualification

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    Hybrid Wing Body Planform Design with Vehicle Sketch Pad

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    The objective of this paper was to provide an update on NASA s current tools for design and analysis of hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with an emphasis on Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). NASA started HWB analysis using the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS). That capability is enhanced using Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter(Registered TradeMark). Model Center enables multifidelity analysis tools to be linked as an integrated structure. Two major components are linked to FLOPS as an example; a planform discretization tool and VSP. The planform discretization tool ensures the planform is smooth and continuous. VSP is used to display the output geometry. This example shows that a smooth & continuous HWB planform can be displayed as a three-dimensional model and rapidly sized and analyzed
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