297 research outputs found

    Barriers to Implementing Research and Technology into the Rail Industry: A Case Study of TPWS and GSM-R in the United Kingdom

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    There is considerable pressure for the rail industry to deliver and implement technologies which increase the efficiencies of the railway. The Rail Technical Strategy Europe set out by the International Union of Railways (UIC) outlines what technologies are required to meet future demands. Research is key for such projects to develop, but there is an inherent issue of progressing the research through to the rail industry, with many barriers preventing their implementation. This paper has conducted two retrospective case studies on implementation in the UK; Train Protection Warning System (TPWS) and Global Systems for Mobiles - Railways (GSM-R). Performing a literature analysis has allowed this study to view how the research in the two cases developed and by collecting qualitative data, analysis of the case studies around the topics of technology management, stakeholder management, and human factors from industry and technical experts outline the implementation approach taken. This paper uses the two cases to identify ways to overcome the barriers to implementation and suggests bridging the research - industry gap requires a more collaborative approach earlier in the research cycle to reduce the perceived risk of research and technology implementation, which in-turn increases its economic viability

    Effects of environmental factors on development of Pyrenopeziza brassicae (light leaf spot) apothecia on oilseed rape debris

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    Publication no. P-2001-0221-01R. This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. The American Phytopathological Society, 2001The development of Pyrenopeziza brassicae (light leaf spot) apothecia was studied on petiole debris from artificially infected oilseed rape leaves incubated at temperatures from 6 to 22 degreesC under different wetness regimes and in 16 h light/8 h dark or continuous darkness. There was no significant difference between light treatments in numbers of apothecia that developed. Mature apothecia developed at temperatures from 5 to 18 degreesC but not at 22 degreesC. The rate of apothecial development decreased as temperature decreased from 18 to 5 degreesC; mature apothecia were first observed after 5 days at 18 degreesC and after 15 days at 6 degreesC. Models were fitted to estimates of the time (days) for 50% of the maximum number of apothecia to develop (t(1); model 1, t(1) = 7.6 + 55.8(0.839)(T)) and the time for 50% of the maximum number of apothecia to decay (t(2); model 2, t(2) = 24.2 + 387(0.730)(T)) at temperatures (T) from 6 to 18 degreesC. An interruption in wetness of the petiole debris for 4 days after 4, 7, or 10 days of wetness delayed the time to observation of the first mature apothecia for approximate to4 days and decreased the number of apothecia produced (by comparison with continuous wetness). A relationship was found between water content of pod debris and electrical resistance measured by a debris-wetness sensor. The differences between values of tl predicted by model 1 and observed values of t(1) were 1 to 9 days. Model 2 did not predict t(2); apothecia decayed more quickly under natural conditions than predicted by model 2.Peer reviewe

    Cross-Sample Validation Provides Enhanced Proteome Coverage in Rat Vocal Fold Mucosa

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    The vocal fold mucosa is a biomechanically unique tissue comprised of a densely cellular epithelium, superficial to an extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich lamina propria. Such ECM-rich tissues are challenging to analyze using proteomic assays, primarily due to extensive crosslinking and glycosylation of the majority of high Mr ECM proteins. In this study, we implemented an LC-MS/MS-based strategy to characterize the rat vocal fold mucosa proteome. Our sample preparation protocol successfully solubilized both proteins and certain high Mr glycoconjugates and resulted in the identification of hundreds of mucosal proteins. A straightforward approach to the treatment of protein identifications attributed to single peptide hits allowed the retention of potentially important low abundance identifications (validated by a cross-sample match and de novo interpretation of relevant spectra) while still eliminating potentially spurious identifications (global single peptide hits with no cross-sample match). The resulting vocal fold mucosa proteome was characterized by a wide range of cellular and extracellular proteins spanning 12 functional categories

    DMRN+16: Digital Music Research Network One-day Workshop 2021

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    DMRN+16: Digital Music Research Network One-day Workshop 2021 Queen Mary University of London Tuesday 21st December 2021 Keynote speakers Keynote 1. Prof. Sophie Scott -Director, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL. Title: "Sound on the brain - insights from functional neuroimaging and neuroanatomy" Abstract In this talk I will use functional imaging and models of primate neuroanatomy to explore how sound is processed in the human brain. I will demonstrate that sound is represented cortically in different parallel streams. I will expand this to show how this can impact on the concept of auditory perception, which arguably incorporates multiple kinds of distinct perceptual processes. I will address the roles that subcortical processes play in this, and also the contributions from hemispheric asymmetries. Keynote 2: Prof. Gus Xia - Assistant Professor at NYU Shanghai Title: "Learning interpretable music representations: from human stupidity to artificial intelligence" Abstract Gus has been leading the Music X Lab in developing intelligent systems that help people better compose and learn music. In this talk, he will show us the importance of music representation for both humans and machines, and how to learn better music representations via the design of inductive bias. Once we got interpretable music representations, the potential applications are limitless

    Differential Coupling of Self-Renewal Signaling Pathways in Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    The ability to reprogram somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), exhibiting properties similar to those of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), has attracted much attention, with many studies focused on improving efficiency of derivation and unraveling the mechanisms of reprogramming. Despite this widespread interest, our knowledge of the molecular signaling pathways that are active in iPSCs and that play a role in controlling their fate have not been studied in detail. To address this shortfall, we have characterized the influence of different signals on the behavior of a model mouse iPSC line. We demonstrate significant responses of this iPSC line to the presence of serum, which leads to profoundly enhanced proliferation and, depending on the medium used, a reduction in the capacity of the iPSCs to self-renew. Surprisingly, this iPSC line was less sensitive to withdrawal of LIF compared to ESCs, exemplified by maintenance of expression of a Nanog-GFP reporter and enhanced self-renewal in the absence of LIF. While inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling decreased iPSC self-renewal, inhibition of Gsk-3 promoted it, even in the absence of LIF. High passages of this iPSC line displayed altered characteristics, including genetic instability and a reduced ability to self-renew. However, this second feature could be restored upon inhibition of Gsk-3. Collectively, our data suggest modulation of Gsk-3 activity plays a key role in the control of iPSC fate. We propose that more careful consideration should be given to characterization of the molecular pathways that control the fate of different iPSC lines, since perturbations from those observed in naïve pluripotent ESCs could render iPSCs and their derivatives susceptible to aberrant and potentially undesirable behaviors

    Identification, release and olfactory detection of bile salts in the intestinal fluid of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

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    Olfactory sensitivity to bile salts is wide-spread in teleosts; however, which bile salts are released in suYcient quantities to be detected is unclear. The current study identiWed bile salts in the intestinal and bile Xuids of Solea senegalensis by mass spectrometry–liquid chromatography and assessed their olfactory potency by the electro-olfactogram

    Excess maternal salt intake produces sex-specific hypertension in offspring: putative roles for kidney and gastrointestinal sodium handling.

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    Hypertension is common and contributes, via cardiovascular disease, towards a large proportion of adult deaths in the Western World. High salt intake leads to high blood pressure, even when occurring prior to birth - a mechanism purported to reside in altered kidney development and later function. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we tested whether increased maternal salt intake influences fetal kidney development to render the adult individual more susceptible to salt retention and hypertension. We found that salt-loaded pregnant rat dams were hypernatraemic at day 20 gestation (147±5 vs. 128±5 mmoles/L). Increased extracellular salt impeded murine kidney development in vitro, but had little effect in vivo. Kidneys of the adult offspring had few structural or functional abnormalities, but male and female offspring were hypernatraemic (166±4 vs. 149±2 mmoles/L), with a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (e.g. male offspring; 11.9 [9.3-14.8] vs. 2.8 [2.0-8.3] nmol/L median [IQR]). Furthermore, adult male, but not female, offspring had higher mean arterial blood pressure (effect size, +16 [9-21] mm Hg; mean [95% C.I.]. With no clear indication that the kidneys of salt-exposed offspring retained more sodium per se, we conducted a preliminary investigation of their gastrointestinal electrolyte handling and found increased expression of proximal colon solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 3 (SLC9A3) together with altered faecal characteristics and electrolyte handling, relative to control offspring. On the basis of these data we suggest that excess salt exposure, via maternal diet, at a vulnerable period of brain and gut development in the rat neonate lays the foundation for sustained increases in blood pressure later in life. Hence, our evidence further supports the argument that excess dietary salt should be avoided per se, particularly in the range of foods consumed by physiologically immature young
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