3,575 research outputs found

    Spin Coherence and 14^{14}N ESEEM Effects of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond with X-band Pulsed ESR

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    Pulsed ESR experiments are reported for ensembles of negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV^-) in diamonds at X-band magnetic fields (280-400 mT) and low temperatures (2-70 K). The NV^- centers in synthetic type IIb diamonds (nitrogen impurity concentration <1<1~ppm) are prepared with bulk concentrations of 210132\cdot 10^{13} cm3^{-3} to 410144\cdot 10^{14} cm3^{-3} by high-energy electron irradiation and subsequent annealing. We find that a proper post-radiation anneal (1000^\circC for 60 mins) is critically important to repair the radiation damage and to recover long electron spin coherence times for NV^-s. After the annealing, spin coherence times of T2=0.74_2 = 0.74~ms at 5~K are achieved, being only limited by 13^{13}C nuclear spectral diffusion in natural abundance diamonds. At X-band magnetic fields, strong electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) is observed originating from the central 14^{14}N nucleus. The ESEEM spectral analysis allows for accurate determination of the 14^{14}N nuclear hypefine and quadrupole tensors. In addition, the ESEEM effects from two proximal 13^{13}C sites (second-nearest neighbor and fourth-nearest neighbor) are resolved and the respective 13^{13}C hyperfine coupling constants are extracted.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    Detection of low energy single ion impacts in micron scale transistors at room temperature

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    We report the detection of single ion impacts through monitoring of changes in the source-drain currents of field effect transistors (FET) at room temperature. Implant apertures are formed in the interlayer dielectrics and gate electrodes of planar, micro-scale FETs by electron beam assisted etching. FET currents increase due to the generation of positively charged defects in gate oxides when ions (121Sb12+, 14+, Xe6+; 50 to 70 keV) impinge into channel regions. Implant damage is repaired by rapid thermal annealing, enabling iterative cycles of device doping and electrical characterization for development of single atom devices and studies of dopant fluctuation effects

    Generalized Drude model: Unification of ballistic and diffusive electron transport

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    For electron transport in parallel-plane semiconducting structures, a model is developed that unifies ballistic and diffusive transport and thus generalizes the Drude model. The unified model is valid for arbitrary magnitude of the mean free path and arbitrary shape of the conduction band edge profile. Universal formulas are obtained for the current-voltage characteristic in the nondegenerate case and for the zero-bias conductance in the degenerate case, which describe in a transparent manner the interplay of ballistic and diffusive transport. The semiclassical approach is adopted, but quantum corrections allowing for tunneling are included. Examples are considered, in particular the case of chains of grains in polycrystalline or microcrystalline semiconductors with grain size comparable to, or smaller than, the mean free path. Substantial deviations of the results of the unified model from those of the ballistic thermionic-emission model and of the drift-diffusion model are found. The formulation of the model is one-dimensional, but it is argued that its results should not differ substantially from those of a fully three-dimensional treatment.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures, REVTEX file, to appear in J. Phys.: Condens. Matte

    Development of a porous burner for low calorific gaseous fuels offering a wide operating range [in press]

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    This work presents the development of a burner for the utilization of low calorific value waste gas, as it arises in the production of high purity hydrogen from biogas using an oxidative steam reforming process. Stable combustion of different fuel gases with fluctuating gas composition over a wide operating range is assured by the application of combustion in an inert porous medium (PIM) utilizing a kinematic flame stabilization mechanism. The development of the PIM-burner bases on calculated effective flame speeds within PIM derived from a 1-D numerical model including harsh operating conditions with preheating temperatures above 800 K and carbon dioxide concentration of 70 %-vol in the fuel gas. Experiments are conducted on a tailored test rig in order to validate numerical predictions by comparison of calculated effective flame speeds to eff ective flame speeds derived from temperature measurements in PIM

    Stark shift and field ionization of arsenic donors in 28^{28}Si-SOI structures

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    We develop an efficient back gate for silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices operating at cryogenic temperatures, and measure the quadratic hyperfine Stark shift parameter of arsenic donors in isotopically purified 28^{28}Si-SOI layers using such structures. The back gate is implemented using MeV ion implantation through the SOI layer forming a metallic electrode in the handle wafer, enabling large and uniform electric fields up to \sim 2 V/μ\mum to be applied across the SOI layer. Utilizing this structure we measure the Stark shift parameters of arsenic donors embedded in the 28^{28}Si SOI layer and find a contact hyperfine Stark parameter of ηa=1.9±0.2×103μ\eta_a=-1.9\pm0.2\times10^{-3} \mum2^2/V2^2. We also demonstrate electric-field driven dopant ionization in the SOI device layer, measured by electron spin resonance.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Cubic Defects: Comparing the Eight-State-System with its Two-Level-Approximation

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    Substitutional defects in a cubic symmetry (such as a lithium defect in a KCl host crystal) can be modeled appropriately by an eight-state-system. Usually this tunneling degree of freedom is approximated by a two-level-system. We investigate the observable differences between the two models in three contexts. First we show that the two models predict different relations between the temperature dependence of specific heat and static susceptibility. Second we demonstrate that in the presence of external forces (pressure and electric field) the eight-state-system shows features that cannot be understood within the framework of the two-level-approximation. In this context we propose an experiment for measuring the parameter for tunneling along the face diagonal. Finally we discuss the differences between the models appearing for strongly coupled pairs. Geometric selection rules and particular forms of asymmetry lead to clear differences between the two models.Comment: 19 pages, Latex, submitted to J. of Phys., some small supplement