287 research outputs found

    Born to Care (or Not): How Gender Role Attitudes Affect Occupational Sorting

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    Occupation segregation explains a significant portion of the gender wage gap, with women working in lower paid female-dominated occupations. We examine how childhood and adolescent exposure to gender biased norms about work influence this occupational sorting. We document that early life exposure to traditional gender role attitudes, which view women’s role as caretakers, increase women’s likelihood of employment in care occupations and decrease the likelihood for men, thereby increasing the gender care occupation gap. A decomposition of the factors affecting this sorting shows that a primary channel is through differences in the choice of post-secondary field of study or major. Our results suggest that traditional gender role attitudes may work to segment the labor market for men and women and contribute to the gender wage gap. This suggests that more egalitarian gender role attitudes which increase the share of men entering care occupations would increase wages for both men and women, lowering the gender wage gap

    Creating a high-resolution picture of Cygnus with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    The Cygnus region hosts one of the most remarkable star-forming regions in the Milky Way. Indeed, the total mass in molecular gas of the Cygnus X complex exceeds 10 times the total mass of all other nearby star-forming regions. Surveys at all wavelengths, from radio to gamma-rays, reveal that Cygnus contains such a wealth and variety of sources---supernova remnants (SNRs), pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), H II regions, Wolf-Rayet binaries, OB associations, microquasars, dense molecular clouds and superbubbles---as to practically be a galaxy in microcosm. The gamma-ray observations along reveal a wealth of intriguing sources at energies between 1 GeV and tens of TeV. However, a complete understanding of the physical phenomena producing this gamma-ray emission first requires us to disentangle overlapping sources and reconcile discordant pictures at different energies. This task is made more challenging by the limited angular resolution of instruments such as the Fermi Large Area Telescope, ARGO-YBJ, and HAWC and the limited sensitivity and field of view of current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), with its improved angular resolution, large field of view, and order of magnitude gain in sensitivity over current IACTs, has the potential to finally create a coherent and well-resolved picture of the Cygnus region between a few tens of GeV and a hundred TeV. We describe a proposed strategy to study the Cygnus region using CTA data, which combines a survey of the whole region at 65<l<8565^{\circ} < l < 85^{\circ} and 3.5<b<3.5-3.5^{\circ} < b < 3.5^{\circ} with deeper observations of two sub-regions that host rich groups of known gamma-ray sources.Comment: In Proceedings of the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2015), The Hague, The Netherlands. All CTA contributions at arXiv:1508.0589

    The Effects of a Summer Camp Experience on Factors of Resilience in At-Risk Youth

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    This pilot study addressed the impact of a summer camp experience on at-risk middle school youth by exploring self-reported growth in skill development and resilience. Campers who attended a five-week summer day camp were compared to a control group who maintained typical activities throughout the summer. Results showed statistically significant differences in the campers’ belief of a good future for themselves (U = 179.40, P = 0.05). Campers reported sustained or positive growth in domains of social skills and positive values from the baseline to a six-month follow up. Three significant themes emerged from individual in-depth interviews including: (a) engagement influences skill competence, (b) the camp environment expands positive choice and availability of positive occupations, and (c) males developed skills and resilience from informal physical activity while no equivalent existed for females. Middle school aged at-risk youth can benefit from occupation-based summer camp programs that promote active engagement in an enriched environment and sustain gains once they return to high-risk environments. This research contributes to a growing understanding of the potential contribution of occupational therapy in the design and delivery of effective summer camp experiences for at-risk youth

    Follow the Money: How Does the Income Flow After an Energy Boom

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    Many U.S. towns reportedly boomed after new technologies in oil and gas extraction, particularly improved hydraulic fracturing, led to rapid development of shale resources. Recent research on the expected economic impact focused on the employment multipliers associated with new oil and gas jobs. Instead, our focus is the impact of oil and gas industry growth on local earnings while paying attention to the distributional effects and assessing how much income seeps out due to the peculiarities of the industry. Our estimation results suggest that oil and gas earnings multipliers are relatively modest and mostly similar to oil and gas employment multipliers, with relatively large shares of the earnings leaving the county on average. Likewise, oil and gas multipliers tend to be smaller or comparable to the estimated multipliers for equal-sized shocks in the rest of the economy, suggesting that oil and gas is not a special industry case. Given the high wages in the sector and the large royalty payments that can go to landowners, these results may be surprising