70 research outputs found

    Our Appalachia: An Oral History

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    Many books have been written about Appalachia, but few have voiced its concerns with the warmth and directness of this one. From hundreds of interviews gathered by the Appalachian Oral History Project, editors Laurel Shackelford and Bill Weinberg have woven a rich verbal tapestry that portrays the people and the region in all their variety. The words on the page have the ring of truth, for these are the people of Appalachia speaking for themselves. Here they recollect an earlier time of isolation but of independence and neighborliness. For a nearer time they tell of the great changes that took place in Appalachia with the growth of coal mining and railroads and the disruption of old ways. Persisting through the years and sounding clearly in the interviews are the dignity of the Appalachian people and their close ties with the land, despite the exploitation and change they have endured. When first published, Our Appalachia was widely praised. This new edition again makes available an authentic source of social history for all those with an interest in the region. The whole history, past and present, of Appalachia is in this book in the words of the people most fit to tell it. The editors have done a superb job of arranging and commenting on the interviews—juxtaposing contrary opinions about issues as varied as strip-mining, traditional way and modern life, tourism and local politics, and the future of the whole region. —New York Times Book Review Our Appalachia is obviously a treasure to be savored as much as read. My hope for it is that it will go beyond receiving more than a few moments of recognition and become a force that will rouse the kind of attention that Appalachians deserve all the time. —Washington Post Book World The genius of this book, in fact, may be that it shows that there is no \u27typical Appalachian.\u27 The people of the mountains are as varied as people of any other region, and if they have a common attribute it is their love of their prickly, lovely land and a certain humor developed in dealing with it. —Louisville Courier-Journal Our Appalachia gives us a beautiful songbook, songs preserving the memories, thoughts, and experiences of people who would otherwise have remained as anonymous as the black seams of coal they dug for so very long. —Chicago Tribune Book World A compilation of the Appalachian Oral History Project, this is the summa of a five-year collaboration between the community and the staff members and students of four regional colleges. It is a book which self-consciously seeks to inspire pride in those who continue to live in the region long proclaimed one of the most benighted in America. The stoicism, courage, and flinty humor of the mountaineers is recorded for their grandchildren in the tales of wild man \u27Devil John\u27; homemade whiskey, quilting, and cornshucking; the early horrors of the coal mines and the battles of the UMW. But the book suffers from a kind of forced optimism--\u27the spirit of independence is alive and well in Central Appalachia\u27--which is not borne out by the words of men like Lewis Burke who says simply, \u27Mining is really a hazardous job with no future.\u27 Economic self-sufficiency has always been an elusive goal, and people seem uncomfortably aware that control of the resources and wealth of eastern Kentucky is in the hands of outsiders. There are some who speak in favor of responsible strip mining and turning Appalachia into a \u27recreational playground\u27; others bitterly oppose such notions and talk of a fundamentalist land ethic, diagnosing the malaise as \u27spiritual\u27 rather than social or economic; still others have concluded that \u27It\u27s proven out to be dog eat dog.\u27 The whole is bound together only by dogged hope, not the kind of trenchant analysis and unifying vision that can make oral history a uniquely powerful document. —Kirkus Reviewshttps://uknowledge.uky.edu/upk_appalachian_studies/1016/thumbnail.jp

    Excess apoptosis of mononuclear cells contributes to the depressed cytomegalovirus-specific immunity in HIV-infected patients on HAART

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    HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have persistently decreased cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific proliferative responses [lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA)] in spite of increases in CD4+ T cell counts. Here we demonstrate an association between apoptosis of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (uPBMC) and decreased CMV-LPA. HAART recipients had more apoptosis of uPBMC than controls when measured by caspases 3, 8, and 9 activities and by annexin V binding. Patients with undetectable HIV replication maintained significantly higher apoptosis of CD4+ and CD14+ cells compared to controls. CMV-LPA decreased with higher apoptosis of uPBMC in patients only. This association was independent of CD4+ cell counts or HIV replication. Furthermore, rescuing PBMC from apoptosis with crmA, but not with TRAIL- or Fas-pathway blocking agents or with other caspase inhibitors, increased CMV-LPA in HAART recipients. This effect was not observed in uninfected controls, further indicating that the down regulatory effect of apoptosis on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was specifically associated with the HIV-infected status

    Astrometry with the Keck-Interferometer: the ASTRA project and its science

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    The sensitivity and astrometry upgrade ASTRA of the Keck Interferometer is introduced. After a brief overview of the underlying interferometric principles, the technology and concepts of the upgrade are presented. The interferometric dual-field technology of ASTRA will provide the KI with the means to observe two objects simultaneously, and measure the distance between them with a precision eventually better than 100 uas. This astrometric functionality of ASTRA will add a unique observing tool to fields of astrophysical research as diverse as exo-planetary kinematics, binary astrometry, and the investigation of stars accelerated by the massive black hole in the center of the Milky Way as discussed in this contribution.Comment: 22 pages, 10 figures (low resolution), contribution to the summerschool "Astrometry and Imaging with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer", 2 - 13 June, 2008, Keszthely, Hungary, corrected authorlis

    Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)

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    Stellar physics and evolution calculations enable a broad range of research in astrophysics. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) is a suite of open source libraries for a wide range of applications in computational stellar astrophysics. A newly designed 1-D stellar evolution module, MESA star, combines many of the numerical and physics modules for simulations of a wide range of stellar evolution scenarios ranging from very-low mass to massive stars, including advanced evolutionary phases. MESA star solves the fully coupled structure and composition equations simultaneously. It uses adaptive mesh refinement and sophisticated timestep controls, and supports shared memory parallelism based on OpenMP. Independently usable modules provide equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, and atmosphere boundary conditions. Each module is constructed as a separate Fortran 95 library with its own public interface. Examples include comparisons to other codes and show evolutionary tracks of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant planets; the complete evolution of a 1 Msun star from the pre-main sequence to a cooling white dwarf; the Solar sound speed profile; the evolution of intermediate mass stars through the thermal pulses on the He-shell burning AGB phase; the interior structure of slowly pulsating B Stars and Beta Cepheids; evolutionary tracks of massive stars from the pre-main sequence to the onset of core collapse; stars undergoing Roche lobe overflow; and accretion onto a neutron star. Instructions for downloading and installing MESA can be found on the project web site (http://mesa.sourceforge.net/).Comment: 110 pages, 39 figures; submitted to ApJS; visit the MESA website at http://mesa.sourceforge.ne

    Form Factors in N=4 Super Yang-Mills and Periodic Wilson Loops

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    We calculate form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory at tree level and one loop using novel applications of recursion relations and unitarity. In particular, we determine the expression of the one-loop form factors with two scalars and an arbitrary number of positive-helicity gluons. These quantities resemble closely the MHV scattering amplitudes, including holomorphicity of the tree-level form factor, and the expansion in terms of two-mass easy box functions of the one-loop result. Next, we compare our result for these form factors to the calculation of a particular periodic Wilson loop at one loop, finding agreement. This suggests a novel duality relating form factors to periodic Wilson loops.Comment: 26 pages, 10 figures. v2: typos fixed, comments adde

    Evasion of anti-growth signaling: a key step in tumorigenesis and potential target for treatment and prophylaxis by natural compounds

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    The evasion of anti-growth signaling is an important characteristic of cancer cells. In order to continue to proliferate, cancer cells must somehow uncouple themselves from the many signals that exist to slow down cell growth. Here, we define the anti-growth signaling process, and review several important pathways involved in growth signaling: p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), retinoblastoma protein (Rb), Hippo, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A), Notch, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) pathways. Aberrations in these processes in cancer cells involve mutations and thus the suppression of genes that prevent growth, as well as mutation and activation of genes involved in driving cell growth. Using these pathways as examples, we prioritize molecular targets that might be leveraged to promote anti-growth signaling in cancer cells. Interestingly, naturally-occurring phytochemicals found in human diets (either singly or as mixtures) may promote anti-growth signaling, and do so without the potentially adverse effects associated with synthetic chemicals. We review examples of naturally-occurring phytochemicals that may be applied to prevent cancer by antagonizing growth signaling, and propose one phytochemical for each pathway. These are: epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for the Rb pathway, luteolin for p53, curcumin for PTEN, porphyrins for Hippo, genistein for GDF15, resveratrol for ARID1A, withaferin A for Notch and diguelin for the IGF1-receptor pathway. The coordination of anti-growth signaling and natural compound studies will provide insight into the future application of these compounds in the clinical setting

    The MHV68 M2 Protein Drives IL-10 Dependent B Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

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    Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1α. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10−/− B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells—perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis—identifying a strategy that appears to be conserved between at least EBV and MHV68

    Beyond Gaussian Averages: Redirecting Management Research Toward Extreme Events and Power Laws

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    Environmentalism, pre-environmentalism, and public policy

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    In the last decade, thousands of new grassroots groups have formed to oppose environmental pollution on the basis that it endangers their health. These groups have revitalized the environmental movement and enlarged its membership well beyond the middle class. Scientists, however, have been unable to corroborate these groups' claims that exposure to pollutants has caused their diseases. For policy analysts this situation appears to pose a choice between democracy and science. It needn't. Instead of evaluating the grassroots groups from the perspective of science, it is possible to evaluate science from the perspective of environmentalism. This paper argues that environmental epidemiology reflects ‘pre-environmentalist’ assumptions about nature and that new ideas about nature advanced by the environmental movement could change the way scientists collect and interpret data.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45449/1/11077_2005_Article_BF01006494.pd

    Flame structures in the near wake of circular cylinders

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