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    Implementation and application of adaptive mesh refinement for thermochemical mantle convection studies

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    Numerical modeling of mantle convection is challenging. Owing to the multiscale nature of mantle dynamics, high resolution is often required in localized regions, with coarser resolution being sufficient elsewhere. When investigating thermochemical mantle convection, high resolution is required to resolve sharp and often discontinuous boundaries between distinct chemical components. In this paper, we present a 2-D finite element code with adaptive mesh refinement techniques for simulating compressible thermochemical mantle convection. By comparing model predictions with a range of analytical and previously published benchmark solutions, we demonstrate the accuracy of our code. By refining and coarsening the mesh according to certain criteria and dynamically adjusting the number of particles in each element, our code can simulate such problems efficiently, dramatically reducing the computational requirements (in terms of memory and CPU time) when compared to a fixed, uniform mesh simulation. The resolving capabilities of the technique are further highlighted by examining plume‐induced entrainment in a thermochemical mantle convection simulation

    On the support of measures in multiplicative free convolution semigroups

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    In this paper, we study the supports of measures in multiplicative free semigroups on the positive real line and on the unit circle. We provide formulas for the density of the absolutely continuous parts of measures in these semigroups. The descriptions rely on the characterizations of the images of the upper half-plane and the unit disc under certain subordination functions. These subordination functions are η\eta-transforms of infinitely divisible measures with respect to multiplicative free convolution. The characterizations also help us study the regularity properties of these measures. One of the main results is that the number of components in the support of measures in the semigroups is a decreasing function of the semigroup parameter