455 research outputs found

    A Power Sharing Method Based on Modified Droop Control for Modular UPS

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    SurroundDepth: Entangling Surrounding Views for Self-Supervised Multi-Camera Depth Estimation

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    Depth estimation from images serves as the fundamental step of 3D perception for autonomous driving and is an economical alternative to expensive depth sensors like LiDAR. The temporal photometric constraints enables self-supervised depth estimation without labels, further facilitating its application. However, most existing methods predict the depth solely based on each monocular image and ignore the correlations among multiple surrounding cameras, which are typically available for modern self-driving vehicles. In this paper, we propose a SurroundDepth method to incorporate the information from multiple surrounding views to predict depth maps across cameras. Specifically, we employ a joint network to process all the surrounding views and propose a cross-view transformer to effectively fuse the information from multiple views. We apply cross-view self-attention to efficiently enable the global interactions between multi-camera feature maps. Different from self-supervised monocular depth estimation, we are able to predict real-world scales given multi-camera extrinsic matrices. To achieve this goal, we adopt the two-frame structure-from-motion to extract scale-aware pseudo depths to pretrain the models. Further, instead of predicting the ego-motion of each individual camera, we estimate a universal ego-motion of the vehicle and transfer it to each view to achieve multi-view ego-motion consistency. In experiments, our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on the challenging multi-camera depth estimation datasets DDAD and nuScenes.Comment: Accepted to CoRL 2022. Project page: https://surrounddepth.ivg-research.xyz Code: https://github.com/weiyithu/SurroundDept

    Mechanistic study of visible light-driven CdS or g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-catalyzed C–H direct trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes using CF<sub>3</sub>SO<sub>2</sub>Na as the trifluoromethyl source

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    The mild and sustainable methods for C–H direct trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes without any base or strong oxidants are in extremely high demand. Here, we report that the photo-generated electron-hole pairs of classical semiconductors (CdS or g-C3N4) under visible light excitation are effective to drive C–H trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes with stable and inexpensive CF3SO2Na as the trifluoromethyl (TFM) source via radical pathway. Either CdS or g-C3N4 propagated reaction can efficiently transform CF3SO2Na to [rad]CF3 radical and further afford the desired benzotrifluoride derivatives in moderate to good yields. After visible light initiated photocatalytic process, the key elements (such as F, S and C) derived from the starting TFM source of CF3SO2Na exhibited differential chemical forms as compared to those in other oxidative reactions. The photogenerated electron was trapped by chemisorbed O2 on photocatalysts to form superoxide radical anion (O2[rad]−) which will further attack [rad]CF3 radical with the generation of inorganic product F− and CO2. This resulted in a low utilization efficiency of [rad]CF3 (&lt;50%). When nitro aromatic compounds and CF3SO2Na served as the starting materials in inert atmosphere, the photoexcited electrons can be directed to reduce the nitro group to amino group rather than being trapped by O2. Meanwhile, the photogenerated holes oxidize SO2CF3− into [rad]CF3. Both the photogenerated electrons and holes were engaged in reductive and oxidative paths, respectively. The desired product, trifluoromethylated aniline, was obtained successfully via one-pot free-radical synthesis.</p

    Validating quantum-supremacy experiments with exact and fast tensor network contraction

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    The quantum circuits that declare quantum supremacy, such as Google Sycamore [Nature \textbf{574}, 505 (2019)], raises a paradox in building reliable result references. While simulation on traditional computers seems the sole way to provide reliable verification, the required run time is doomed with an exponentially-increasing compute complexity. To find a way to validate current ``quantum-supremacy" circuits with more than 5050 qubits, we propose a simulation method that exploits the ``classical advantage" (the inherent ``store-and-compute" operation mode of von Neumann machines) of current supercomputers, and computes uncorrelated amplitudes of a random quantum circuit with an optimal reuse of the intermediate results and a minimal memory overhead throughout the process. Such a reuse strategy reduces the original linear scaling of the total compute cost against the number of amplitudes to a sublinear pattern, with greater reduction for more amplitudes. Based on a well-optimized implementation of this method on a new-generation Sunway supercomputer, we directly verify Sycamore by computing three million exact amplitudes for the experimentally generated bitstrings, obtaining an XEB fidelity of 0.191%0.191\% which closely matches the estimated value of 0.224%0.224\%. Our computation scales up to 41,932,80041,932,800 cores with a sustained single-precision performance of 84.884.8 Pflops, which is accomplished within 8.58.5 days. Our method has a far-reaching impact in solving quantum many-body problems, statistical problems as well as combinatorial optimization problems where one often needs to contract many tensor networks which share a significant portion of tensors in common.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, comments are welcome

    Characterization of Fungal nirK-Containing Communities and N2O Emission From Fungal Denitrification in Arable Soils

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    Fungal denitrifiers play important roles in soil nitrogen cycling, but we have very limited knowledge about their distribution and functions in ecosystems. In this study, three types of arable soils were collected across different climate zones in China, including quaternary red clay soils, alluvial soils, and black soils. The composition and abundance of fungal nirK-containing denitrifiers was determined by MiSeq high-throughput sequencing and qPCR, respectively. Furthermore, a substrate-induced inhibition approach was used to explore N2O emissions from fungal denitrification. The results showed that the arable soils contained a wide range of nirK-containing fungal denitrifiers, with four orders and eight genera. Additionally, approximately 57.30% of operational taxonomic unit (OTUs) belonged to unclassified nirK-containing fungi. Hypocreales was the most predominant order, with approximately 40.51% of the total number of OTUs, followed by Sordariales, Eurotiales, and Mucorales. It was further indicated that 53% of fungal nirK OTUs were shared by the three types of soils (common), and this group of fungi comprised about 98% of the total relative abundance of the nirK-containing population, indicating that the distribution of fungal nirK-containing denitrifiers was quite homogenous among the soil types. These common OTUs were determined by multiple soil characteristics, while the composition of unique OTUs was manipulated by the specific properties of each soil type. Furthermore, fungal N2O emissions were significantly and positively correlated with fungal nirK abundance in the soils, whereas it was not clearly related to fungal nirK compositions. In conclusion, although the arable soils hosted diverse nirK-containing fungal denitrifiers, fungal nirK compositions were highly homogenous among the soil types, which could be a consequence of enduring agricultural practices. The abundance of fungal nirK-containing denitrifiers, rather than their composition, may play more significant roles in relation to N2O emission from fungal denitrification

    Relation of in situ Hyper-Spectral Radiometer Data with Phenomena Observed by Other Variables - Comparison of in situ data with MOD IS images -

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