28,647 research outputs found

    Voices from the diaspora: changing hierarchies and dynamics of Chinese multilingualism

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    The so-called Chinese diasporas, i.e. Chinese communities outside Greater China (China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan), have traditionally been dialect dominant; that is, the vast majority of Chinese immigrants are speakers of (especially Southern) dialects. Cantonese and Hokkien are two of the most prominent dialects. With globalization and the rise of China as a world politico-economic power, the national, standardized variety, Putonghua, is gaining particular prestige amongst the Chinese diasporas. For example, all the Cantonese schools for British Chinese children in the UK now also teach Putonghua, but none of the Putonghua schools teach Cantonese. Using ethnographic interviews with and participant observation of Chinese people of different generations in various diasporic communities, this paper examines the changing hierarchies of varieties of Chinese, the implications of such changes for the education and identity development of the young, and the constitution of a (speech) community in the post-modern era. It focuses on language attitude and linguistic practices (including literacy practices). It also investigates the tensions between the competing ideologies and discourses on national and ethnic identities, nationalism, community relations and cultural values

    On Weak Topology for Optimal Control of Switched Nonlinear Systems

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    Optimal control of switched systems is challenging due to the discrete nature of the switching control input. The embedding-based approach addresses this challenge by solving a corresponding relaxed optimal control problem with only continuous inputs, and then projecting the relaxed solution back to obtain the optimal switching solution of the original problem. This paper presents a novel idea that views the embedding-based approach as a change of topology over the optimization space, resulting in a general procedure to construct a switched optimal control algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a local optimizer. Our result provides a unified topology based framework for the analysis and design of various embedding-based algorithms in solving the switched optimal control problem and includes many existing methods as special cases

    Preen Gland-Secreted Alkanols Enhance Male Attractiveness in Parrots

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    The skin glands are widely used in pheromone production throughout the vertebrate worlds. Growing evidences show that birds also have chemical communication, but the uropygial (also called preen or oil) glands, serving as only specialized skin glands of birds, have no sex pheromones characterized. Here, by combining GC-MS analysis and bioassay, we show with the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus, that birds can used the preen gland-secreted volatiles (a blend of octadecanol, nonadecanol and eicosanol for male budgerigars) spread over body plumage when preening to convey sex information. Here, we first report the avian pheromones derived from the uropyginal gland and suggests that the gland has broader implications than previously known (e.g. plumage waterproofing and reflectance in sexual behaviour of birds

    Hyper-accreting black hole as GRB central engine. I: Baryon loading in GRB jets

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    A hyper-accreting stellar-mass black hole has been long speculated as the best candidate of central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent rich observations of GRBs by space missions such as Swift and Fermi pose new constraints on GRB central engine models. In this paper, we study the baryon loading processes of a GRB jet launched from a black hole central engine. We consider a relativistic jet powered by ννˉ\nu \bar\nu-annihilation or by the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We consider baryon loading from a neutrino-driven wind from a neutrino-cooling-dominated accretion flow. For a magnetically dominated BZ jet, we consider neutron-drifting from the magnetic wall surrounding the jet and subsequent positron capture and proton-neutron inelastic collisions. The minumim baryon loads in both types of jet are calculated. We find that in both cases, a more luminous jet tends to be more baryon poor. A neutrino-driven "fireball" is typically "dirtier" than a magnetically dominated jet, while a magnetically dominated jet can be much cleaner. Both models have the right scaling to interpret the empirical ΓLiso\Gamma-L_{\rm iso} relation discovered recently. Since some neutrino-driven jets have too much baryon loading as compared with the data, we suggest that at least a good fraction of GRBs should have a magnetically dominated central engine.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures; Accepted for publication in Ap

    Multi-View Active Learning in the Non-Realizable Case

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    The sample complexity of active learning under the realizability assumption has been well-studied. The realizability assumption, however, rarely holds in practice. In this paper, we theoretically characterize the sample complexity of active learning in the non-realizable case under multi-view setting. We prove that, with unbounded Tsybakov noise, the sample complexity of multi-view active learning can be O~(log1ϵ)\widetilde{O}(\log\frac{1}{\epsilon}), contrasting to single-view setting where the polynomial improvement is the best possible achievement. We also prove that in general multi-view setting the sample complexity of active learning with unbounded Tsybakov noise is O~(1ϵ)\widetilde{O}(\frac{1}{\epsilon}), where the order of 1/ϵ1/\epsilon is independent of the parameter in Tsybakov noise, contrasting to previous polynomial bounds where the order of 1/ϵ1/\epsilon is related to the parameter in Tsybakov noise.Comment: 22 pages, 1 figur