68,816 research outputs found

    Mathematics at the eve of a historic transition in biology

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    A century ago physicists and mathematicians worked in tandem and established quantum mechanism. Indeed, algebras, partial differential equations, group theory, and functional analysis underpin the foundation of quantum mechanism. Currently, biology is undergoing a historic transition from qualitative, phenomenological and descriptive to quantitative, analytical and predictive. Mathematics, again, becomes a driving force behind this new transition in biology.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Protein folding tames chaos

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    Protein folding produces characteristic and functional three-dimensional structures from unfolded polypeptides or disordered coils. The emergence of extraordinary complexity in the protein folding process poses astonishing challenges to theoretical modeling and computer simulations. The present work introduces molecular nonlinear dynamics (MND), or molecular chaotic dynamics, as a theoretical framework for describing and analyzing protein folding. We unveil the existence of intrinsically low dimensional manifolds (ILDMs) in the chaotic dynamics of folded proteins. Additionally, we reveal that the transition from disordered to ordered conformations in protein folding increases the transverse stability of the ILDM. Stated differently, protein folding reduces the chaoticity of the nonlinear dynamical system, and a folded protein has the best ability to tame chaos. Additionally, we bring to light the connection between the ILDM stability and the thermodynamic stability, which enables us to quantify the disorderliness and relative energies of folded, misfolded and unfolded protein states. Finally, we exploit chaos for protein flexibility analysis and develop a robust chaotic algorithm for the prediction of Debye-Waller factors, or temperature factors, of protein structures

    TopologyNet: Topology based deep convolutional neural networks for biomolecular property predictions

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    Although deep learning approaches have had tremendous success in image, video and audio processing, computer vision, and speech recognition, their applications to three-dimensional (3D) biomolecular structural data sets have been hindered by the entangled geometric complexity and biological complexity. We introduce topology, i.e., element specific persistent homology (ESPH), to untangle geometric complexity and biological complexity. ESPH represents 3D complex geometry by one-dimensional (1D) topological invariants and retains crucial biological information via a multichannel image representation. It is able to reveal hidden structure-function relationships in biomolecules. We further integrate ESPH and convolutional neural networks to construct a multichannel topological neural network (TopologyNet) for the predictions of protein-ligand binding affinities and protein stability changes upon mutation. To overcome the limitations to deep learning arising from small and noisy training sets, we present a multitask topological convolutional neural network (MT-TCNN). We demonstrate that the present TopologyNet architectures outperform other state-of-the-art methods in the predictions of protein-ligand binding affinities, globular protein mutation impacts, and membrane protein mutation impacts.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures, 5 table

    Quantitative toxicity prediction using topology based multi-task deep neural networks

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    The understanding of toxicity is of paramount importance to human health and environmental protection. Quantitative toxicity analysis has become a new standard in the field. This work introduces element specific persistent homology (ESPH), an algebraic topology approach, for quantitative toxicity prediction. ESPH retains crucial chemical information during the topological abstraction of geometric complexity and provides a representation of small molecules that cannot be obtained by any other method. To investigate the representability and predictive power of ESPH for small molecules, ancillary descriptors have also been developed based on physical models. Topological and physical descriptors are paired with advanced machine learning algorithms, such as deep neural network (DNN), random forest (RF) and gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT), to facilitate their applications to quantitative toxicity predictions. A topology based multi-task strategy is proposed to take the advantage of the availability of large data sets while dealing with small data sets. Four benchmark toxicity data sets that involve quantitative measurements are used to validate the proposed approaches. Extensive numerical studies indicate that the proposed topological learning methods are able to outperform the state-of-the-art methods in the literature for quantitative toxicity analysis. Our online server for computing element-specific topological descriptors (ESTDs) is available at http://weilab.math.msu.edu/TopTox/Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1703.1095

    Tuning Hole Mobility, Concentration, and Repulsion in High-TcT_c Cuprates via Apical Atoms

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    Using a newly developed first-principles Wannier-states approach that takes into account large on-site Coulomb repulsion, we derive the effective low-energy interacting Hamiltonians for several prototypical high-TcT_c superconducting cuprates. The material dependence is found to originate primarily from the different energy of the apical atom pzp_z state. Specifically, the general properties of the low-energy hole state, namely the Zhang-Rice singlet, are significantly modified by a triplet state associated with this pzp_z state, via additional intra-sublattice hoppings, nearest-neighbor "super-repulsion", and other microscopic many-body processes. Possible implications on modulation of TcT_c, local superconducting gaps, charge distribution, hole mobility, electron-phonon interaction, and multi-layer effects are discussed.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, 1 tabl
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