158 research outputs found

    Selectivity of an Active Natural Zeolite in Catalytic Conversion Process of Bangkirai, Kruing and Kamper Woods Biofuel to Gasoline Fraction = Selektivitas Zeolit Alam Aktif pada Proses Katalik Konversi Asap Cair Kayu ...

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    The selectivity of an active natural zeolite (ZAAH) in catalytic conversion process of Bangkirai, Kruing and Kamper woods biofuels has been studied. The ZAAH catalyst was prepared from a natural zeolite (ZA) treated with acids solution (1% HF and 6M HCI) and hydrothermal then calcined at 5009C and oxidized at 4009C under nitrogen and oxygen gas stream, respectively. Charactedzations of the catalysts including Si/AI ratio and acidity were determined by atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS) and ammonia gas adsorption method, respectively. The conversion process was carried out in a flow reactor system at 4009C, under N2 stream (20 mL/min). The biofuel was vaporized from the pyrolysis zone to the catalytic reactor. A liquid product was covered and analysed by gas chromatograph (GC) and that connected with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The characterization results showed that the Si/AI ratio and acidity of the ZAAH were higher than that of the ZA catalyst. The GC-MS data showed that the highest product selectivity was 2,4-dimethyl heptane and 1,2-dimethyl benzene. The total product selectivity using the ZAAH catalyst (bangkirai = 68.10%kruing = 54.76%kamper = 50.72%) was higher than that of the ZA catalyst (bangkirai = 39.24%kruing = 44.38%kamper = 46.11%). Keywords: active natural zeolite, selectivity, biofuel, gasoline fraction

    Optimation Of Time And Catalyst/Feed Ratio In Catalytic Cracking Of Waste Plastics Fraction To Gasoline Fraction Using Cr/Natural Zeolite Catalyst = Optimasi Waktu dan Rasio Katalis/Umpan pada Proses Perengkahan...

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    ABSTRACT Optimation of time and catalyst/feed ratio in catalytic cracking of waste plastics fraction to gasoline fraction using Cr/Natural Zeolite catalyst has been studied.The natural zeolite was calcined by using nitrogen gas at 500°C for 5 hours. The chromium supported on to the zeolite was prepared by ion exchange methode with Cr(NO3)3.9H20 solution with chromium/zeolite concentration of 1% (w/w). The zeolite samples were then calcined with nitrogen gas at 500°C for 2 hours, oxidyzed with oxygen gas and reduced with hydrogen at 400°C for 2 hours. The characterization of the zeolite catalyst by means of Si/AI ratio by UV-Vis spectroscopy, acidity with pyridine vapour adsorption and Na, Ca and Cr contents by atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS). The catalyst activity test was carried out in the cracking process of waste plastics fraction with boiling point range of 150 - 250°C (consisted of C12 - Cl6hydrocarbons) at 450°C for 30 min, 60 min and 90 min, and catalyst/feed ratio 1/1, 1/2, 1/3, X(w/w) . The result of catalyst activity test showed that the maximum number conversion of gasoline fraction (C5-C11) is 53,27% with relatively low coke formation using 1/3 catalyst/feed ratio and the cracking time of 60 min.. This catalyst has Si/AI ratio = 1,21 (w/w) , acidity = 0,16 mmol/g and Na content = 0,81%, Ca content = 0,15% and Cr content 0,24%. Keywords: zeolite, catalytic cracking, gasoline, chromium

    OPTIMATION OF TIME AND CATALYST/FEED RATIO IN CATALYTIC CRACKING OF WASTE PLASTICS FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION USING Cr/NATURAL ZEOLITE CATALYST

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    Optimation of time and catalyst/feed ratio in catalytic cracking of waste plastics fraction to gasoline fraction using Cr/Natural Zeolite catalyst has been studied.The natural zeolite was calcined by using nitrogen gas at 500 oC for 5 hours. The chromium supported on to the zeolite was prepared by ion exchange methode with Cr(NO3)3.9H2O solution with chromium/zeolite concentration of 1% (w/w). The zeolite samples were then calcined  with nitrogen gas at 500 oC for 2 hours, oxidyzed with oxygen gas and reduced with hydrogen at 400 oC for 2 hours. The characterization of the zeolite catalyst by means of Si/Al ratio by UV-Vis spectroscopy, acidity with pyridine vapour adsorption and Na, Ca and Cr contents by atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS). The catalyst activity test was carried out in the cracking process of waste plastics fraction with boiling point range of 150 - 250 °C (consisted of C12 - C16 hydrocarbons) at 450 oC for 30 min, 60 min and 90 min, and catalyst/feed ratio 1/1, 1/2, 1/3, ¼ (w/w). The result of catalyst activity test  showed  that  the maximum number  conversion of gasoline fraction (C5-C11) is 53,27% with relatively low coke formation using 1/3 catalyst/feed ratio and the cracking time of 60 min.. This  catalyst has  Si/Al ratio = 1,21 (w/w) , acidity = 0,16 mmol/g and Na content = 0,81%, Ca content = 0,15% and Cr content 0,24%.   Keywords: zeolite, catalytic cracking, gasoline, chromium

    Selectivity of an Active Natural Zeolite in Catalytic Conversion Process of <i>Bangkirai, Kruing</i> and <i>Kamper</i> Woods Biofuel to Gasoline Fraction

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    The selectivity of an active natural zeolite (ZAAH) in catalytic conversion process of Bangkirai, Kruing and Kamper woods biofuels has been studied. The ZAAH catalyst was prepared from a natural zeolite (ZA) treated with acids solution (1% HF and 6M HCI) and hydrothermal then calcined at 500 °C and oxidized at 400 °C under nitrogen and oxygen gas stream, respectively. Characterizations of the catalysts including Si/Al ratio and acidity were determined by atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS) and ammonia gas adsorption method, respectively. The conversion process was carried out in a flow reactor system at 400 °C, under N2 stream (20 mL/min). The biofuel was vaporized from the pyrolysis zone to the catalytic reactor. A liquid product was covered and analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC) and that connected with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The characterization results showed that the Si/AI ratio and acidity of the ZAAH were higher than that of the ZA catalyst. The GC-MS data showed that the highest product selectivity was 2,4-dimethyl heptane and 1,2-dimethyl benzene. The total product selectivity using the ZAAH catalyst (bangkirai = 68.10%; kruing = 54.76%; kamper = 50.72%) was higher than that of the ZA catalyst (bangkirai = 39.24%; kruing = 44.38%; kamper = 46.11%)

    EFFECT OF CERIUM ON HYDRODESULFURIZA TION CATALYST PERFORMANCE

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    ABSTRACT Effect of cerium on hydrodesulfurization catalysts performance have been investigated. The catalysts were pt or Pt-Ce supported on zeo!itfJ. The Pt/Zeolite catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method, while that of Pt- Ce/Zeolite catalyst was prepared using coimpregnation method both were followed by drying, calcination, oxidation and reduction. The catalysts activity test was performed in a micro reactor and products composition was determined using gas chromatography. The results showed that cerium enhanced catalyst performance especially catalyst lifetime. Therefore, the catalysts have higher tendency to remain active for longer period. Due to its function, cerium might be used as a promoter of hydrodesulfurization catalysts. Keywords: Cerium, hydrodesulfurization,promoter, life tim

    HIDRORENGKAH KATALITIK MINYAK KULIT BIJI JAMBU METE (CNSL) MENJADI FRAKSI BENSIN DAN DIESEL

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi hidrorengkah minyak kulit jambu mete menjadi fraksi energi dengan bantuan katalis. Katalis yang digunakan berbahan dasar Zeolit-Y yang berasal dari Jepang dan logam Nikel (E-Merck). Katalis NiO/ZY dipreparasi dengan metode impregnasi basah menggunakan garam prekursor Ni(NO3)2.6H2O kedalam zeolit-Y sebagai bahan pengemban. Karakterisasi katalis ditentukan dengan metode gravimetri untuk mengetahui keasaman katalis dengan basa piridin sebagai basa adsorbat dan porositas katalis menggunakan Surface Area Analyzer (NOVA- 1000). Proses hidrorengkah dilakukan dengan reaktor sistem fixed bed menggunakan katalis NiO/ZY pada suhu 400°C, aliran gas H2 sebanyak 20ml/menit selama 1 jam dengan rasio umpan/katalis = 4. Produk yang dihasilkan dianalisis menggunakan Kromatografi Gas (GC). Hasil reaksi yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa hidrorengkah CNSL dengan katalis NiO/ZY menghasilkan produk cair sebanyak 80,03% dengan selektivitas bensin, diesel dan minyak berat masing-masing sebesar 38,47%, 25,88% dan 15, 74%

    Pengaruh Kadar Logam Wel Terhadap Aktivitas Katalis Ni/Zeolit-Y Dalam Reaksi Hidrorengkah Minyak Bumi

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    ABSTRACT Study about the effect of Ni content towards Ni/Y-Zeolite catalytic activities for hydrocracking of crude oil has been carried out. The preparation method used was ion exchange method by using the nickel nitrat solution in various concentrations. The catalyst was activated by calcinizing in a flow of nitrogen for 5 hours at 4000C and oxidizing it in the oksigen flow for 3 hours at 400° C, then followed by reducing in a flow of hydrogen for 3 hours at 3000 C. Catalytic activity test was conducted on fixed bed reactor for 30 minutes. The catalytic temperature was set at 3000 C and liquid phase yielded of catalytic process was analyzed by chromatographic method. The, result showed that the Ni/Y-zeolite catalysts with various Ni content had the same selectivity to C11-C12 fraction and had a different selectivity to C9-C10 fraction. Key Words : NVY-zeolite, ion exchange, hydrocrackin

    Nickel Supported Parangtritis Beach Sand (PP) Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Palm and Malapari Oil into Biofuel

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    Nickel supported Parangtritis beach sand (PP) catalyst for hydrocracking of palm and malapari oil into biofuel has been conducted. The impregnation process of Nickel (Ni) metal on PP was carried out through the dry impregnation method (blending) using a precursor salt of NiCl2.6H2O with variations of Ni metal as much as 10 and 15 wt% of PP which produced Ni(A) and Ni(B) catalysts. Each catalyst was tested for activity and selectivity through the hydrocracking process of oil into biofuel using a semi-batch system reactor at a temperature of 450 oC, a hydrogen gas flow rate of 20 mL/minute for 2 hours, and a weight ratio of 1:200 catalyst:feed (w/w). The results showed that the Ni(A)/PP catalyst had the highest activity and selectivity with the yield of liquid products and the total biofuel fraction (biohydrocarbons) obtained from hydrocracking of palm oil of 68.50 and 49.87 wt%, respectively. Ni(A)/PP catalyst has a total acidity, surface area, and crystal size of 0.051 mmol/g, 4.44 m2/g, 25.86 nm, respectively. The reusability test of the Ni(A)/PP catalyst in the hydrocracking process of palm oil into biofuel after the third use resulted in a liquid product and the total biofuel fraction obtained was 64.20 and 41.46 wt%, respectively. The yield of liquid product and the total fraction of biofuel (biohydrocarbon) in hydrocracking malapari oil were 66.10, 47.83 wt%, respectively. Copyright © 2022 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).

    Pengaruh Perlakuan Temperatur pada Sintesis Bentonit Terpilar Al2O3 terhadap Karakternya dan Aplikasinya Sebagai Katalis dalam Reaksi Esterifikasi

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    The synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 pillared bentonite have been done and its application as catalyst for esterification reaction were studied. The effect of temperature treatment on the synthesis of Al2O3 pillared bentonite towards its characters were studied by calcinations methods with temperature variation 300, 400, and 500&nbsp;oC for 4 h. The increasing of temperature on the synthesis of Al2O3 pillared bentonite was caused decreased of basal spacing, total pore volume and specific surface area bentonite. Characterizations were performed by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), N2 gas sorption analysis methods and FTIR analysis. The esterification reactions were conducted using acetic acid and ethanol. The ester products then were analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC). Catalytic activity test showed that the percentage of ethyl acetate produced by Al2O3-pillared natural bentonite and natural bentonite catalyzed reactions were 16,74 and 8,61 %, respectively, eventhough natural bentonite surface acidity was higher than Al2O3-pillared natural bentonite. It was demonstrated also that catalytic activity was not influenced merely by surface acidity but also influenced by specific surface area and total pore volume
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