427 research outputs found

    Interaction between drugs and the gut microbiome

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    The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem that can mediate the interaction of the human host with their environment. The interaction between gut microbes and commonly used non-antibiotic drugs is complex and bidirectional: gut microbiome composition can be influenced by drugs, but, vice versa, the gut microbiome can also influence an individual's response to a drug by enzymatically transforming the drug's structure and altering its bioavailability, bioactivity or toxicity (pharmacomicrobiomics). The gut microbiome can also indirectly impact an individual's response to immunotherapy in cancer treatment. In this review we discuss the bidirectional interactions between microbes and drugs, describe the changes in gut microbiota induced by commonly used non-antibiotic drugs, and their potential clinical consequences and summarise how the microbiome impacts drug effectiveness and its role in immunotherapy. Understanding how the microbiome metabolises drugs and reduces treatment efficacy will unlock the possibility of modulating the gut microbiome to improve treatment

    Gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases:moving from basic science to clinical applications

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    In recent years, large efforts have been made to unravel the role of the gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract. Considering the heterogeneity patients with IBD display in their disease course and response to treatment, there is a big need in translating these findings towards clinical practise. In this perspective article, we discuss strategies to facilitate the transition from basic science on gut microbiota in IBD to clinical applications. We suggest that setting gold standards, improving and increasing the biobanking efforts, and studying other members of the gut microbiota are a necessary step to reveal the exact role of the gut microbiota in IBD. In addition, we discuss the potential of the gut microbiome as a clinical tool for the diagnoses, prediction and/or treatment of the disease. We believe that the growing interest in the gut microbiota will reveal its potential in the management of IBD in a not too distant future

    Multi-locus genetic risk score predicts risk for Crohn's disease in Slovenian population

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    AIM: To develop a risk model for Crohn's disease (CD) based on homogeneous population.METHODS: In our study were included 160 CD patients and 209 healthy individuals from Slovenia. The association study was performed for 112 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We generated genetic risk scores (GRS) based on the number of risk alleles using weighted additive model. Discriminatory accuracy was measured by area under ROC curve (AUC). For risk evaluation, we divided individuals according to positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) of a test, with LR &gt; 5 for high risk group and LR &lt;0.20 for low risk group.RESULTS: The highest accuracy, AUC of 0.78 was achieved with GRS combining 33 SNPs with optimal sensitivity and specificity of 75.0% and 72.7%, respectively. Individuals with the highest risk (GRS &gt; 5.54) showed significantly increased odds of developing CD (OR = 26.65, 95% CI: 11.25-63.15) compared to the individuals with the lowest risk (GRS &lt;4.57) which is a considerably greater risk captured than in one SNP with the highest effect size (OR = 3.24). When more than 33 SNPs were included in GRS, discriminatory ability was not improved significantly; AUC of all 74 SNPs was 0.76.CONCLUSION: The authors proved the possibility of building accurate genetic risk score based on 33 risk variants on Slovenian CD patients which may serve as a screening tool in the targeted population.</p

    Identification of environmental risk factors associated with the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multiple genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) but data on these exposome factors are difficult to identify . Several exposome factors as smoking have been shown to be involved, as for other environmental factors, i.e. stress, results have been conflicting. METHODS: We performed a case-control study including 674 IBD patients of the 1000IBD cohort frequency-matched based on sex and age to 1,348 controls from population based Lifelines Cohort Study. Exposome data was obtained using the validated Groningen IBD Environmental Questionnaire (GIEQ), capturing exposome factors through different stages of life using 844 items, of which 454 applicable to study the role of 93 exposome factors in disease etiology. Logistic regression modeling with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied to estimate the multivariable-adjusted effect of each exposome factor. RESULTS: For IBD, we identified four novel factors; stressful life-events (CD OR2.61/UC OR 2.92), high perceived stress (2.29/2.67), alcohol use (0.40/0.43), and bronchial hyperreactivity (3.04/2.36). Four novel factors were associated with only CD; prenatal smoke exposure (1.89), having a bedpartner (0.53), allergies (2.66) and cowmilk-hypersensitivity (5.87), two solely with UC; carpet flooring (0.57) and neuroticism (1.32). Nine factors were replicated. CONCLUSION: In this study we identified ten novel and replicated nine previous reported exposome factors associated with IBD. Identifying these factors is important for both understanding disease etiology and future prevention strategies to decrease the development of IBD in genetically susceptible persons

    Non-small-bowel abnormalities identified during small bowel capsule endoscopy

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    AIM: To investigate the incidence of non-small-bowel abnormalities in patients referred for small bowel capsule endoscopy, this single center study was performed. METHODS: Small bowel capsule endoscopy is an accepted technique to investigate obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This is defined as bleeding from the digestive tract that persists or recurs without an obvious etiology after a normal gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. Nevertheless, capsule endoscopy sometimes reveals findings outside the small bowel, i. e., within reach of conventional endoscopes. In this retrospective single center study, 595 patients undergoing capsule endoscopy between 2003 and 2009 were studied. The incidence of non-small bowel abnormalities was defined as visible abnormalities detected by capsule endoscopy that are located within reach of conventional endoscopes. RESULTS: In 595 patients, referred for obscure gas-trointestinal bleeding or for suspected Crohn's disease, abnormalities were found in 306 (51.4%). Of these 306 patients, 85 (27.7%) had abnormalities within reach of conventional endoscopes; 63 had abnormalities apparently overlooked at previous conventional endoscopies, 10 patients had not undergone upper and lower endoscopy prior to capsule endoscopy and 12 had abnormalities that were already known prior to capsule endoscopy. The most common type of missed lesions were vascular lesions (n = 47). Non-small-bowel abnormalities were located in the stomach (n = 15), proximal small bowel (n = 22), terminal ileum (n = 21), colon (n = 19) or at other or multiple locations (n = 8). Ten patients with abnormal findings in the terminal ileum had not undergone examination of the ileum during colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients undergoing small bowel capsule endoscopy had lesions within reach of conventional endoscopes, indicating that capsule endoscopy was unnecessarily performed. (C) 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved

    Understanding human gut diseases at single-cell resolution

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    Our understanding of gut functioning and pathophysiology has grown considerably in the past decades, and advancing technologies enable us to deepen this understanding. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has opened a new realm of cellular diversity and transcriptional variation in the human gut at a high, single-cell resolution. ScRNA-seq has pushed the science of the digestive system forward by characterizing the function of distinct cell types within complex intestinal cellular environments, by illuminating the heterogeneity within specific cell populations, and by identifying novel cell types in the human gut that could contribute to a variety of intestinal diseases. In this review, we highlight recent discoveries made with scRNA-seq that significantly advance our understanding of the human gut both in health and across the spectrum of gut diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal carcinoma and celiac disease

    Non-classical clinical presentation at diagnosis by male celiac disease patients of older age

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    BACKGROUND: . In a biopsy-proven adult celiac disease (CeD) cohort from the Netherlands, male patients were diagnosed with CeD at significantly older ages than female patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify which factors contribute to diagnosis later in life and whether diagnostic delay influences improvement of symptoms after starting a gluten-free diet (GFD). METHODS: . We performed a questionnaire study in 211 CeD patients (67:144, male:female) with median age at diagnosis of 41.8 years (interquartile range: 25-58) and at least Marsh 2 histology. RESULTS: . Classical symptoms (diarrhea, fatigue, abdominal pain and/or weight loss) were more frequent in women than men, but sex was not significantly associated with age at diagnosis. In a multivariate analysis, a non-classical presentation (without any classical symptoms) and a negative family history of CeD were significant predictors of older age at diagnosis (coefficients of 8 and 12 years, respectively). A delay of >3 years between first symptom and diagnosis was associated with slower improvement of symptoms after start of GFD, but not with sex, presentation of classical symptoms or age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: . Non-classical CeD presentation is more prevalent in men and is associated with a diagnosis of CeD later in life. Recognizing CeD sooner after onset of symptoms is important because a long diagnostic delay is associated with a slower improvement of symptoms after starting a GFD

    Distinctive inflammatory bowel disease phenotype in primary sclerosing cholangitis

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    AIM: To review the current literature for the specific clinical characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS: A systematical review for clinical characteristics of IBD in PSC was performed by conducting a broad search for "primary sclerosing cholangitis" in Pubmed. "Clinical characteristics" were specified into five predefined subthemes: epidemiology of IBD in PSC, characteristics of IBD in PSC (i.e., location, disease behavior), risk of colorectal cancer development, IBD recurrence and de novo disease after liver transplantation for PSC, and safety and complications after proctocolectomy with ileal pouchanal anastomosis. Papers were selected for inclusion based on their relevance to the subthemes, and were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Only full papers relevant to PSC-IBD were included. Additionally the references of recent reviews for PSC (<5 years old) were scrutinized for relevant articles. RESULTS: Initial literature search for PSC yielded 4704 results. After careful review 65 papers, comprising a total of 11406 PSC-IBD patients, were selected and divided according to subtheme. Four manuscripts overlapped and were included in two subthemes. Prevalence of IBD in PSC shows a large variance, ranging from 46.5% to 98.7% with ulcerative colitis (UC) being the most common type (> 75%). The highest IBD rates in PSC are found in papers reviewing both endoscopic and histological data for IBD diagnosis. Although IBD in PSC is found to be a quiescent disease, pancolitis occurs often, with rates varying from 35% to 95%. Both backwash ileitis and rectal sparing are observed infrequently. The development of dysplasia or colorectal carcinoma is increased in PSC-IBD; the cumulative 10 years risk varying between 0% and 11%. Exacerbation of IBD is common after liver transplantation for PSC and de novo disease is seen in 1.3% to 31.3% of PSC-IBD patients. The risk for development of pouchitis in PSC-IBD is found to be significant, affecting 13.8% to 90% of the patients after proctocolectomy with ileo anal-pouch anastomosis. CONCLUSION: IBD in primary sclerosing cholangitis represents a distinct phenotype that differs from UC and Crohn's disease and therefore requires specialized management
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